Eurobarometer 44.0 (Oct-Nov 1995)

Europäische Kommission
Judgement on the European currency; health questions; European Union; school and further education; family and provision for old age. Topics: interest in politics; personal opinion leadership; attitude to unification of Europe; judgement on membership of one´s own country in t...
published 2012-07-01, Version 1.0.1

Full Metadata Record


Resource Type

Dataset : Survey and aggregate data



Language of Resource




Eurobarometer 44.0 (Oct-Nov 1995)

Alternative Title

Standard Eurobarometer 44


Cancer, Education Issues, and the Single European Currency

Origin Information


Publication Date




0 - Data and documents are released for everybody.


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European Commission, Brussels; DG X - Information Communication Culture Surveys Research Analyses
Marketing Unit, Bruessel
GFK Danmark, Kopenhagen
KEME, Athen
CIMEI, Madrid
TMO Consultants, Paris
Lansdowne Market Research, Dublin
ILRES, Luxemburg
NIPO, Amsterdam
NORMA, Lissabon
NOP Corporate & Financial, London
Ulster Marketing Surveys, Nordirland
SPECTRA, Linz, OEsterreich
TEMO, Solna, Schweden
MARKETING DEVELOPMENT CENTER, Espoo, FinnlandINRA EUROPE, Brussels (Fieldwork co-ordination)



Sampled Universe
Persons 15 years old and older
Sampling Procedure Comment: Multi-stage stratified random sample

Collection Mode

  • Oral survey with standardized questionnaire

DataSets and Files

  • Unit Type: Individual
    Number of Units: 16641
    Number of Variables: 631


  • Abstract

    Judgement on the European currency; health questions; European Union; school and further education; family and provision for old age. Topics: interest in politics; personal opinion leadership; attitude to unification of Europe; judgement on membership of one´s own country in the EU. 1. European currency: attitude to the European currency; reasons for or against introduction of a European currency; self-classification of extent to which informed about the European currency; knowledge about the Maastricht criteria for introduction of a common European currency; knowledge about the countries that do not want to join the currency union; expected year of introduction of the common currency; expected economic consequences of the common currency; preference for introduction on one day or a longer transition phase in introduction of the European bank notes; desire for a longer transition period for dual pricing in stores, on bills, on bank statements and salary statements; expected conversion problems; preference for a special information campaign on the introduction of the European currency; preferred institutions and media for such an information campaign. 2. Health: knowledge about the European week against cancer; media through which the respondent received this information; knowledge about the European program against cancer; opportunities for cancer prevention through corresponding precaution; judgement on selected consumer habits as cancer-causing; attitude to medical check-ups for women for early diagnosis of breast cancer; personal participation in such medical check-ups. 3. Europe questions: advantageousness of EU membership for one´s own country; assessment of the necessity of a common currency for the European integration process; attitude to the term EURO with appending the name of the national currency; attitude to the fight against organized crime, illegal immigration and to formulating a defense policy on the European level; persons who would be suitable to push European integration; personal knowledge of a foreign language and assessment of the most significant foreign languages; trust in the people of individual European countries as well as in the Americans, Russians, Poles, Hungarians and Czechs (country image); assessment of the significance of German-French cooperation for the European integration process; interest in information about Germany; preferred media and information channels about Germany; Federal Chancellor Kohl as integration figure for Europe; associations with Germany. 4. School and education: primary task of the school; school-age children; satisfaction with personality development and social development in school; importance of selected personality characteristics; judgement on the role of parents, the school and the working world in view of development of these personality characteristics among children; adequate inclusion of parents and companies in school decisions and in school training; satisfaction with personal training; missing aspects in personal training; judgement on the school as facility to prepare for demands of today´s society; influence of a rapidly changing society on one´s own training plans and decisions; attitude to life-long learning and preferred ways to improve personal education level; reasons for termination of one´s own further education; sensibility of further education for the working world and personal life; voluntary or involuntary participation in measures for further education; judgement on selected recommendations on government support of measures for further education; preference for nation, state, city, company or participant to finance further education; personal willingness to pay a share of the costs of further education; possibility of the European Union in further education; necessity of life-long learning for the respondent himself and significance for one´s own employment situation; assessment of adequate preparation of schoolchildren by school for today´s information society; influence of modern communication technologies on the quality of education and expected basic change in conveying knowledge. 5. Family and provision for one´s old age: desirability of population growth in one´s country; attitude to government support of families with children; scountry or individual as primarily responsible for provision for one´s old age; preference for an increase in social security contributions or reduction of pensions in case of lack of government support possibilities; preference for housing older persons in houses for seniors or their own family; government or individual responsibility for nursing care of older persons; personal number of children; ideas about one´s own family planning; normative ideas about parents´ being married and the age span (separate for men and women) in which they should become parents; preference for the choice of name of women at marriage; with married people the following questions were posed, whether the respondent (female) or, in the case of a (male) respondent, his partner used her maiden name, the name man or both names. 6. Questions on the structure of the EU: attitude to a European Union with common foreign and defense policy; preferred supervision of the European Government by the European Parliament or the Council of Ministers; attitude to a federally organized European Union; preferred conduct with non-unamimous stand of the countries on such a federal organization structure. Self-classification on a left-right continuum; possession of durable economic goods; possession of a telephone; religiousness. Also encoded was: date of interview; length of interview; time at start of interview; presence of other persons during interview; willingness of respondent to cooperate. In Luxembourg, Belgium and Finland the language in which the interview was conducted was recorded.


Per country approx. 1000 persons were interviewed, except in Northern Ireland and Luxembourg, where approx. 300 or 500 surveys took place. Both the questions on common European currency or EURO and the questions on ´education and school´ are also contained in the Eurobarometer 44.1 (ZA Study No. 2690) surveyed at almost the same time. While the currency questions were directed to the entire sample, in the follow-up survey, the questions on ´education and school´ were only directed to young people between the ages of 15 to 24 years, who can serve as oversample to 44.0. A cumulated data set of the Eurobarometers with selected Trend questions from 1970-1992 is archived under ZA Study No. 3521. Questions on attitudes towards the Single European Currency (Q.4 and Q.7 to Q.19) are repeated in Eurobarometer 44.1 and should be analysed in combination.


Temporal Coverage

  • 1995-10-26 / 1995-11-10
  • 1995-10-24 / 1995-11-13
  • 1995-10-20 / 1995-11-04
  • 1995-10-23 / 1995-11-06
  • 1995-10-24 / 1995-11-08
  • 1995-10-23 / 1995-11-09
  • 1995-10-24 / 1995-11-14
    Ireland (Republic)
  • 1995-10-25 / 1995-11-08
  • 1995-10-03 / 1995-11-28
  • 1995-10-17 / 1995-11-16
  • 1995-10-06 / 1995-11-29
  • 1995-10-23 / 1995-11-14
    Great Britain
  • 1995-11-02 / 1995-11-10
    Northern Ireland
  • 1995-10-19 / 1995-11-07
  • 1995-10-27 / 1995-11-21
  • 1995-10-14 / 1995-11-16

Geographic Coverage

  • Belgium (BE)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Greece (GR)
  • Spain (ES)
  • France (FR)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Luxembourg (LU)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Portugal (PT)
  • Great Britain (GB-GBN)
  • Northern Ireland (GB-NIR)
  • Austria (AT)
  • Sweden (SE)
  • Finland (FI)


Alternative Identifiers

  • ZA2689 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • doi:10.3886/ICPSR06721.v1 (Type: DOI)
  • Internationale Umfrageprogramme (Type: FDZ)

Related Identifiers

  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.4232/1.2689


  • Europäische Kommission (Hrsg.): Eurobarometer 44: Die öffentliche Meinung in der Europäischen Gemeinschaft. Brüssel: Selbstverlag 1995.
  • European Commission: EUROBAROMETER 44. Public Opinion in the European Community. Brussels, Spring 1996.
  • European Commission: Europeans and their Attitudes to Education and Training. Brussels, 1997.
  • European Commission: European Citizens and the EURO, Brussels, 1996 (Results of two EU-wide opinion polls carried out 15 Oct-15 Dec and 16 Dec-20 Dec on behalf of the European Commission Survey Research Unit "Eurobarometer Opinion Polls". 22-24 January 1996. Round table on the Euro. Executive summary. Press release.) (also available in French and german)

Update Metadata: 2021-08-30 | Issue Number: 47 | Registration Date: 2012-08-09