Eurobarometer 44.1 (Nov-Dec 1995)

Europäische Kommission
Attitude to the EU, European unification, the currency union. Purchasepreferences of foods. Defense questions of the EU. Third world.Attitude of young people to education. Topics: Expected economicsituation for the next year and expectations regarding the financialsituation of...
published 2012-07-01, Version 1.0.1

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Dataset : Numeric



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Eurobarometer 44.1 (Nov-Dec 1995)

Alternative Title

Standard Eurobarometer 44


Education and Training Throughout Life and the Common European Currency

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Publication Date




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European Commission, Brussels; DG X - Information Communication Culture Surveys Research Analyses
Marketing Unit, Bruessel
GFK Danmark, Kopenhagen
KEME, Athen
CIMEI, Madrid
TMO Consultants, Paris
Lansdowne Market Research, Dublin
Ulster Marketing Surveys, Nordirland
ILRES, Luxemburg
NIPO, Amsterdam
NORMA, Lissabon
NOP, London
TEMO AB, Solna, Schweden
Marketing Development Center, Espoo, Finnland
Nielsen Norge, Bergen
SPECTRA, Linz, OEsterreich
INRA EUROPE, Bruessel (Internationale Koordination)



Sampled Universe
Persons 15 years old and older.
Probability: Multistage; Sampling Procedure Comment: Multi-stage stratified random sample

Time Dimension

  • Cross-section

Collection Mode

  • Face-to-face interview: PAPI
  • Oral survey with standardized questionnaire

DataSets and Files

  • Unit Type: Individual
    Number of Units: 17298
    Number of Variables: 1057


  • Abstract

    Attitude to the EU, European unification, the currency union. Purchasepreferences of foods. Defense questions of the EU. Third world.Attitude of young people to education. Topics: Expected economicsituation for the next year and expectations regarding the financialsituation of one´s own household, the employment situation in thecountry, one´s own job situation as well as regarding generalcontentment with life; interest in politics; personal opinionleadership; attitude to membership of the country in the EU andadvantageousness of membership for one´s own country; judgement on thespeed of unification of the EU and desired progress of this unification(scale); attitude to a common European currency; self-assessment ofextent to which informed about the European currency; knowledge aboutthe convergence criteria for participants in the common currencyspecified in the Maastricht Treaty; knowledge about the two countriesthat have a special arrangement regarding their opportunity to join thecommon currency; knowledge about the time of introduction of thecurrency; hope, concerns and general attitudes to the effects of theEuropean currency (scale); preference for an introduction on one day ora gradual introduction of the new bank notes; desire for more slow orshort-term transition time in dual pricing of products; expectedtransition difficulties in the introduction of the new currency;preferred information provider for the introduction of the Europeancurrency; preferred institutions and media for conveying thisinformation; vision of Europe in the year 2010; European citizenship;significant European controversies and events noticed in the media;relative significance of decision-making European institutions;preference for national or common European decisions in selected areas(split: presentation of different topics and political areas); hopes orfears in the Common Market and the European Union; attitude to a commonEuropean foreign and security policy; attitude to a EuropeanGovernment; current and desired role of the European Parliament; coreareas for the European Parliament; perceived representation ofinterests of the people through institutions such as the EuropeanCommission, the national government, the European Parliament, thenational parliament and the Council of Ministers; the significance ofthe European Parliament for the EU; actual and desired significance ofparliament; knowledge about the government conference and its primarytopics; further desired topics for the government conference; attitudeto a ´Europe of two speeds´. Food: frequency of purchasing selectedfoods; brand, quality sign, country of origin, traditional character,external presentation, place of sale, price and date of production asmost important decision criteria in purchase of selected product types;most important characteristics of a quality product in the area offoods; trust in quality symbols; knowledge and significance of theabbreviations R.O.C., D.O.C., P.D.O and P.G.I.; willingness to pay ahigher price for food with guaranteed designation of origin; frequencyof consuming as well as shopping place or place of consumption ofselected foods produced in traditional manner; most important providerof information on traditionally produced foods; particular attention toconsumption of foods of designated origin in restaurants; attitude to aguarantee of the European Union for the designation of origin and theproduction process of foods. EU: characterization of actual and desiredfunctioning of the EU; assumed excess of power of individual countriesin the decisions of the EU and in particular in the Council ofMinisters (split: open/closed question); parties, organizations ormedia representing one´s own concepts of Europe; attitude to acceptanceof the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia in the EU; attitudeto agricultural subsidies for newly joining Eastern European countries;most important rights of a European citizen in the other membercountries; most important political goals of the European Union in thenext 10 years. EU as preventer of war between the member countries;preferred extent of obligation to send troops from the member countriesgiven a hypothetical mission outside of the European Union; deploymentof troops only with agreement of the European Parliament; reduction ofthe standard of social security in Europe to increase internationalcompetitive ability; hopes on reduction in unemployment withcooperation between the member countries of the European Union;attitude to an expansion or reduction of the rights of foreigners inthe country; preference for decisions of the political leaders orientedon goals or the needs of the citizens; feeling of politicaleffectiveness on national as well as European level; longer staysabroad; assessment of the significance and preference for commonEurope-wide or national treatment of topics such as reduction ofregional differences, provision of energy, equality in prosperity,fight against terrorism, support of poorer countries, defense ofEuropean interests against the great economic and political powers,foreign countries, environmental protection, defense and strengtheningrelations to Eastern Europe. Third world: sources of information aboutThird World countries; perceived topics from the Third World; areas ofindividual information deficits about the Third World; attitude tosupport of the Third World; desired goals and actual conduct of theindustrialized countries in support of the Third World; organizationsor political institutions providing the financially most extensive andmost sensible foreign aid; conditions, that should be placed in theaward of foreign aid money; classification of European support for theThird World as humanitary emergency action or long-term developmentwork. In Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Greece, Italy, Spain,Germany and in the United Kingdom the following additional questionswere posed: stating the member countries, the respondent knows well;stating the countries reliable politically and in business as well asworking economically efficiently; stating the countries particularlyobligated to the European Union; probability of a common currency inthe year 1999; judgement on the current political as well as economicsituation in Italy on a scale. The following additional questions wereposed to young people between the ages of 15 to 24 years: mostimportant tasks of the school; technical training or acquisition ofsocial skills as task of school education; satisfaction withachievement of these goals; most important educational goals andcharacter traits of a person; parents, school or work environment asresponsible to develop these educational goals; adequate effort ofparents for the interests of children; judgement on companies inacceptance of their responsibility for young people in school; schoolsatisfaction; reasons for possible dissatisfaction; assessment of taskfulfillment of the school in view of preparation of children fortoday´s society; reasons for possible dissatisfaction; broad generaleducation or specialization as preferred measure to deal with rapidsocial changes; attitude to the statement ´learning ends with school´;attitude to further education in the personal area as well as in thearea of the working world; participation in voluntary and compulsoryfurther education events in the last year; attitude to life-longgovernment support for further education measures; preferred measuresto make participation in such education measures easier; institutionthat should provide the finances for further education; personalwillingness to accept costs in further education events; possible roleof the EU in further education; most important reasons for respondentto continually participate in further education; adequate preparationof children through school in view of the information society; betterschool training through use of new communication technologies; expectedchanges of school education through new communication technologies;self-assessment on a left-right continuum; possession of durableeconomic goods; span of control. In Ireland the following additionalquestions were posed: attitude to participation in the common Europeancurrency in case of a refusal of the British; assessment ofparticipation of the EU in the peace process in Northern Ireland;attitude to Irish participation in a common European defense. In Spainthe following additional questions were posed: extent to which informedabout the Spanish presidency in the Council of Ministers andsignificance of this presidency. In Norway the following additionalquestions were posed: judgement on the EU/EFTA-Agreements; conduct inthe referendum for the country to join the EU; areas in which progressor disadvantages would be expected through membership of Norway;expected membership of the country by the year 2005; expected effectsfor Sweden through membership in the EU. Also encoded was: date of interview; time of start of interview; length of interview; persons present during the interview; willingness of respondent to cooperate; possession of a telephone.


In Norway only one selection of questions was surveyed. The totals of the cases of the data set are distributed among the individual countries as follows: Belgium 1013 cases, Denmark 1000 cases, Germany (West sample) 1095 cases, Germany (East sample) 1019 cases, Greece 1008 cases, Spain 1000 cases, France 1000 cases, Ireland 1000 cases, Italy 1028 cases, Luxembourg 770 cases, Netherlands 1020 cases, Portugal 936 cases, Great Britain 1070 cases, Northern Ireland 311 cases, Austria 1036 cases, Sweden 990 cases, Finland 1050 cases, Norway 952 cases. The parallel survey in Norway is not part of the official Eurobarometer 44.1. Earlier Eurobarometers (2-40) are archived under ZA Study Nos. 0986-0995, 1036-1039, 1206-1209, 1318-1321, 1541-1544, 1712-1715, 1750-1753, 1960-1962, 2031-2033, 2081, 2141, 2241-2243, 2291-2295, 2346, 2347, 2459, 2490, 2491, 2563, 2636 as well as 2637. A cumulated data set of the Eurobarometer (1970-1992) is archived under ZA Study No. 2533. Questions on attitudes towards the "Single European Currency" (Q.3 and Q.9 to Q.21) are repeated from Eurobarometer 44.0 and should be analyzed in combination. Questions on "education and training throughout life" and "children’s education at school" (Q.92 TO Q.118) are repeated from Eurobarometer 44.0, but are only asked to respondents aged 15-24 years. Meaningful results are obtained for the total population on the 44.0 data; for the target group of young people and specific needs of this questionnaire topic, one should combine the 44.1 youth subsample with the corresponding 44.0 data. The parallel survey conducted in NORWAY is not part of the official Eurobarometer 44.1.


Temporal Coverage

  • 1995-11-13 / 1995-12-08
  • 1995-11-18 / 1995-12-12
  • 1995-11-12 / 1995-11-30
  • 1995-11-16 / 1995-12-04
  • 1995-11-17 / 1995-12-04
  • 1995-11-13 / 1995-12-04
  • 1995-11-15 / 1995-12-14
    Ireland (Republic)
  • 1995-11-16 / 1995-12-30
  • 1995-11-11 / 1995-12-14
  • 1995-11-13 / 1995-12-14
  • 1995-11-20 / 1995-12-13
  • 1995-11-11 / 1995-12-08
    Great Britain
  • 1995-11-18 / 1995-12-05
    Northern Ireland
  • 1995-11-13 / 1995-12-01
  • 1995-11-18 / 1995-12-19
  • 1995-11-11 / 1995-12-11
  • 1995-11-15 / 1996-01-15

Geographic Coverage

  • Belgium (BE)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Greece (GR)
  • Spain (ES)
  • France (FR)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Luxembourg (LU)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Portugal (PT)
  • Great Britain (GB-GBN)
  • Northern Ireland (GB-NIR)
  • Austria (AT)
  • Sweden (SE)
  • Finland (FI)
  • Norway (NO)


Alternative Identifiers

  • ZA2690 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • doi:10.3886/ICPSR06723.v1 (Type: DOI)
  • Internationale Umfrageprogramme (Type: FDZ)

Related Identifiers

  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.4232/1.2690


  • Europäische Kommission (Hrsg.): Eurobarometer 44: Die öffentliche Meinung in der Europäischen Union. Brüssel: Selbstverlag Frühjahr 1996.
  • INRA (Europe) pour la Commission Européenne, Direction Générale VI.BI.4: Les labels de qualité. Bruxelles, mars 1996.
  • INRA (Europe) fot the European Commission, DG VIII: The Way Europeans perceive developing Countries in 1995. Brussels, 20th March 1996 (also available in French)
  • European Commission: Europeans and their Attitudes to Education and Training. 1997.
  • European Commission: European Citizens and the EURO, Brussels, 1996 (Results of two EU-wide opinion polls carried out 15 Oct-15 Dec and 16 Dec-20 Dec on behalf of the European Commission Survey Research Unit "Eurobarometer Opinion Polls". 22-24 January 1996. Round table on the Euro. Executive summary. Press release.) (also available in French and german)

Update Metadata: 2021-12-10 | Issue Number: 51 | Registration Date: 2012-08-09