Eurobarometer 44.3OVR (Feb-Apr 1996)

Europäische Kommission
Employment and unemployment. Gender equality. Topics: Standard Eurobarometer measures such as whether they attempted to persuade others close to them to share their views on subjects they held strong opinions about, whether they discussed political matters, and how they viewed...
published 2012-10-01, Version 1.0.1

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Resource Type

Dataset : Survey and aggregate data



Language of Resource




Eurobarometer 44.3OVR (Feb-Apr 1996)


Employment, Unemployment, and Gender Equality

Origin Information


Publication Date




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European Commission, Brussels; DG X - Information Communication Culture Surveys Research Analyses
Marketing Unit, Brssel
GFK Danmark, Kopenhagen
INRA Deutschland, Mlln
KEME, Athen
CIMEI, Madrid
TMO, Paris
Lansdowne Market Research, Dublin
ILRES, Luxemburg
NIPO, Amsterdam
METRIS, Lissabon
NOP Corporate and Financial, London
TEMO AB, Solna, Schweden
Marketing Development Center, Espoo, Finnland
SPECTRA, Linz, sterreich
INRA EUROPE, Brssel (Internationale Koordination)



Sampled Universe
Persons 15 years old and older
Sampling Procedure Comment: The basic sample design applied in all member states is a multi-stage, random (probability) one of persons aged 15 and over, residing in each of the member states. In each EU country a number of sampling points was drawn with probability proportional to population size (for a total coverage of the country) and to population density. Sampling points were drawn systematically from all administrative regional units after stratification by individual unit and type of area. They thus represent the whole territory of the Member States according to the EUROSTAT-NUTS II (or equivalent) and according to the distribution of the national, resident population in terms of metropolitan, urban, and rural areas. In each of the selected sampling points a starting address was drawn at random. Further addresses were selected as every Nth address by standard random route procedures. In each household the respondent was drawn at random. During the fieldwork for Eurobarometer 44.3, an oversample (approximately 300 per country) of unemployed persons and housewives/househusbands, aged 15 years and over, was added to the basic sample and subsequently administered an additional set of questions. Students and retired were excluded from the oversample. Also, there was no oversample for Luxembourg and Northern Ireland, and 14 cases from Luxembourg and 2 cases from Northern Ireland were dropped.

Collection Mode

  • All interviews were face-to-face in people`s homes and in the appropriate national language

DataSets and Files

  • Unit Type: Individual
    Number of Units: 20679
    Number of Variables: 560



ZA-Classification (GESIS Data Catalogue)


  • Abstract

    Employment and unemployment. Gender equality. Topics: Standard Eurobarometer measures such as whether they attempted to persuade others close to them to share their views on subjects they held strong opinions about, whether they discussed political matters, and how they viewed the need for societal change. Respondents who were employed or self-employed were asked questions concerning their job titles, the ratio of women to men holding the same title, number of people employed at their workplaces, how long they were continuously employed/self-employed, how they found out about their jobs, the type of organizations for which they worked, the number of hours worked, job satisfaction, the type of communication equipment used, and the circumstances under which they would reduce their hours or take unpaid leave. Employed and self-employed respondents were asked about the pay, training, skill level, variety, amount, pressure, and interest involved in their work. They also compared their jobs with jobs they were doing five years ago. Non-self-employed workers provided additional information regarding their level of involvement in decisions that affected their jobs, existence of promotional opportunities, indices of pay raises or dismissal, likelihood of leaving their jobs, and commitment to their current employers. Questions posed to unemployed respondents covered how long they had been unemployed, their former occupation, reasons for leaving their last position, and whether they had received any compensation. They were also asked if they were looking for a job, what approaches they used to find a job, the amount of time spent looking for a job, problems in trying to find a job, whether they would consider a position requiring different skills, a lower level of skills, worse physical conditions, or different hours, or if they would relocate. These respondents also indicated whether they had experienced boredom, depression, family tensions, loss of self-confidence, not enough money, increased difficulty in rearing children, or lack of contact with people as a result of being unemployed. All respondents were asked questions concerning gender equality. Respondents were asked to assess the current work situation for women with respect to wages, job security, promotional opportunities, and the number and variety of jobs available. Respondents were also asked to evaluate reasons why women less often held positions of responsibility and to prioritize areas of action to be taken to remedy existing inequalities. Respondents also rated the impact of womens working on the well-being of men, children, women, families, and couples. Demography: Gender, age, nationality, marital status, occupation, income, left-right political self-placement, age at completion of education, number of people in household, number of children under 15 in household, subjective size of community, and region of residence.


INRA calculated response rates as the percentage of the ´total number of completed interviews´ over the ´total number of effective contacts´ (in the addition of three visits, if needed). The response rate estimates considerably vary between countries (basic sample/oversample): BE: 56%/45%; DK: 40%/28%; DE-W: 71%/76%; DE-E: 69%/80%; GR: 46%/56%; IT: 43%/54%; ES: 77%/86%; FR: 80%/77%; IE: 54%/71%; LU: 70%/-; NL: 24%/51%; PT: 61%/49%; GB-GBN: 53%/49%; GB-NIR: 59%/-; AT: 75%/86%; SE: 52%/NA; FI: 42%/71% (Source: Duncan Gallie: Employment, Unemployment and the Quality of life: The Employment in Europe Survey 1996. University of Oxford, June 1997.) Basic sample + unemployed OVeRsample (Q.1 to Q.110). For detailed weighting information see the basic English questionnaire.


Temporal Coverage

  • 1996-03-04 / 1996-03-25
  • 1996-03-10 / 1996-03-29
  • 1996-03-05 / 1996-03-25
  • 1996-03-06 / 1996-03-25
  • 1996-03-07 / 1996-03-22
  • 1996-03-05 / 1996-03-25
  • 1996-03-06 / 1996-03-25
  • 1996-03-06 / 1996-04-03
    Ireland (Republic)
  • 1996-03-01 / 1996-03-28
  • 1996-03-08 / 1996-04-01
  • 1996-03-09 / 1996-03-28
  • 1996-02-27 / 1996-03-24
    Great Britain
  • 1996-03-10 / 1996-03-29
    Northern Ireland
  • 1996-03-07 / 1996-03-29
  • 1996-03-08 / 1996-03-29
  • 1996-03-05 / 1996-03-29

Geographic Coverage

  • Belgium (BE)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Greece (GR)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Spain (ES)
  • France (FR)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • Luxembourg (LU)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Portugal (PT)
  • Great Britain (GB-GBN)
  • Northern Ireland (GB-NIR)
  • Austria (AT)
  • Sweden (SE)
  • Finland (FI)


Alternative Identifiers

  • ZA2830 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • doi:10.3886/ICPSR02443.v1 (Type: DOI)
  • Internationale Umfrageprogramme (Type: FDZ)

Related Identifiers

  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.4232/1.2830


  • European Commission: Equal opportunities for women and men in Europe?. Brussels, January 1999.
  • Reif, Karlheinz, and Ronald Inglehart (eds.): EURO-BAROMETER: THE DYNAMICS OF EUROPEAN OPINION. London: MacMillan, 1991.
  • Duncan Gallie (on behalf of the European Commission): Employment, Unemployment and the Quality of life: The Employment in Europe Survey 1996. University of Oxford, June 1997.
  • European Commission, Directorate General for Employment, Industrial Relation and social Affairs: Women and Men in Europe and equal Opportunities - Results of an Opinion Poll. Brussels, March 1997.

Update Metadata: 2021-08-30 | Issue Number: 74 | Registration Date: 2012-10-08