European Parliament Election Study, Longitudinal Media Study 1999, 2004, 2009

Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
  • Banducci, Susan (Department of Politics, University of Exeter)
  • de Vreese, Claes H. (University of Amsterdam)
  • Semetko, Holli A. (University of Amsterdam)
  • Boomgarden, Hajo G. (University of Amsterdam)
  • Luhiste, Maarja (Department of Politics, University of Exeter)
  • Peter, Jochen (University of Amsterdam)
  • Schuck, Andreas (University of Amsterdam)
  • Xezonakis, Georgios (Department of Politics, University of Exeter)
Publication Date
  • University of Amsterdam University of Exeter (Data Collector)
  • ZA:
    • Political Parties, Organizations
    • Communication, Public Opinion, Media
  • CESSDA Topic Classification:
    • Politics
    • Elections
    • Mass media
  • Abstract

    Media coverage of elections to the European Parliament. Topics: Newspapers: page number on which the article begins; type of newspaper article (e.g. report, interview, documentary, cartoon, etc.); beginning of the article on the top or bottom half of the page; television: length of the TV contribution; main topic of the report; actual and desired main person responsible in the main topic of the report (political actor within and outside the national government, non-political actor, EU or EU-related actor); place of action of the report; mainly affected geographical area; main actor (persons, groups, organisations); explicit assessment of the main actor; sex of the main actor; frequency of direct citation of the main actor; assessment of the EU; two or more aspects of a problem mentioned; conflicts or disagreements mentioned; personal attack between actors. Elections to the European Parliament and election campaign: report covers the elections to the European Parliament or the election campaign; opinion poll results mentioned; mention of actors as ´Gewinner´ or ´Verlierer´; mention of presentation type and style of the actor; report mentions a strategic step with a certain motivation; use of metaphors from the language of sport or the language of wars; election campaign to the European elections is described as boring or exciting; report mentions voter turnout in the European elections in the country; report mentions people´s interest in the election campaign or in the elections; report mentions aspects related to the role of the media in the election campaign (only in 2004); report mentions interviews with people on the street (vox populi). Additionally coded was: coder ID; name of the medium; publication date; country.
Temporal Coverage
  • 1999-05-10 / 1999-06-15
  • 2004-05-22 / 2004-06-14
  • 2009-05-14 / 2009-06-07
Geographic Coverage
  • Austria (AT)
  • Belgium (BE)
  • Bulgaria (BG)
  • Cyprus (CY)
  • Czech Republic (CZ)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Estonia (EE)
  • Finland (FI)
  • France (FR)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Greece (GR)
  • Hungary (HU)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Latvia (LV)
  • Lithuania (LT)
  • Luxembourg (LU)
  • Malta (MT)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Poland (PL)
  • Portugal (PT)
  • Romania (RO)
  • Slovakia (SK)
  • Slovenia (SI)
  • Spain (ES)
  • Sweden (SE)
  • United Kingdom (GB)
Sampled Universe
All news about the EU or the election campaign for the European Union Parliament, which have been mentioned at least once on national television and newspapers
Sampling Procedure Comment: Selection of the leading newspapers (mostly: three) and TV stations (two to four stations). Recording of all reporting on national media with a focus on television and newspapers (the most important national news programmes of the most frequent observed public and commercial television stations and by two quality newspapers (i.e. broadsheet) and one tabloid newspaper from any country).
Collection Mode
  • Content coding
Data and File Information
  • Number of Variables: 38
The Media Study is part of the European Election Study and the PIREDEU project. Publications with EBS data can be found in the EBS Bibliography at This database contains the bibliographical information on former European Election Studies and relevant publications of the most important PIREDEU researchers on the project. Key issues are: Elections to European Parliament, democracy, citizenship, political parties, electoral behaviour, media, candidates and party programmes. The content analysis was carried out on a sample of national media coverage in 15 EU Member States in 1999, in 24 EU Member States in 2004 and in all 27 EU Member States in 2009. In all waves, the focus is on national TV channels and newspapers as the main sources of information about the EU for European citizens. All three waves include the main national evening news programmes from the most watched public and commercial TV channels in each country. One or two ´Qualitätszeitungen´ (i.e. broadsheet) and one tabloid newspaper from each country (for countries without a relevant tabloid, another sensational daily) were also included. In 1999, the dataset included only one national broadsheet newspaper, so there was no sensational newspaper. In some countries, the coded media sales channels vary from year to year. In each wave, content analysis was carried out for news items published or broadcast 2 or 3 weeks before the election. In 1999, the sample included television programmes for the 2 weeks before the election and a newspaper for the 3 weeks before the election. In 2004 and 2009, both TV and newspapers were sampled and analysed for the 3 weeks before the election. All relevant news agencies were collected either digitally (TV and newspapers) or as hard copies (newspapers).
A - Data and documents are released for academic research and teaching.
All metadata from GESIS DBK are available free of restriction under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication. However, GESIS requests that you actively acknowledge and give attribution to all metadata sources, such as the data providers and any data aggregators, including GESIS. For further information see
Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA5178 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • Internationale Umfrageprogramme (Type: FDZ)
  • Banducci, Susan; de Vreese, Claes; Semetko, Holli; Boomgarden, Hajo; Luhiste, Maarja: (2010), EES Longitudinal Media Study Data Advance Release Documentation, 15/10/2010. (

Update Metadata: 2021-04-07 | Issue Number: 20 | Registration Date: 2014-09-12