Automobile, Traffic and Environment

Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
  • SPIEGEL-Verlag, Hamburg
Publication Date
  • SINUS, Heidelberg (Data Collector)
  • Socialdata, Muenchen (Data Collector)
  • GFM-GETAS, Hamburg (Data Collector)
  • Basis Research, Frankfurt/Main (Data Collector)
  • ZA:
    • Patterns of Consumption
  • CESSDA Topic Classification:
    • Social conditions and indicators
    • Social change
    • Time use
    • Transport, travel and mobility
    • Natural resources and energy
    • Environmental degradation/pollution and protection
    • Consumption/consumer behaviour
  • Abstract

    Attitude to car driving, car purchase, use of public transportation and local public transportation. Attitude to traffic and environmental pollution from the car. Topics: Attitude to traffic (scale): perceived danger of accidents from increasing traffic density; anger at pedestrian and bicyle paths blocked by vehicles; judgement on the duration of green phases for pedestrians; danger of traffic for children; lack of consideration of many car drivers; noise pollution from cars in residential areas; disregard for traffic regulations by cyclists; generally excessive speed in traffic; hostility of cities to pedestrians; air pollution from automobile emissions; demand for increased police control of parked vehicles; pedestrians as fair game; assessment of the effectiveness of protest actions against the flood of cars; undisciplined conduct of motorcycle drivers; problems from commuter traffic; superiority of the bicycle compared to the car in commuter traffic; preference for a weekend free of cars; attitude to drivers license and license plates for cyclists; downtown over-burdened through automobile traffic. Attitude to the traffic situation (scale): perceived improvement in traffic discipline in the last few years; car as optimum means of transport; preference for more frequent traffic checks and for support of local public transportation instead of additional road construction; more attractive city centers from zones free of cars; limitation of 30 km speed zones to residential areas; attitude to a speed limit of 130 km/h on freeways; preference for a major restriction of private automobile traffic; attitude to the zero blood-alcohol limit; perceived possibility to improve traffic flow through traffic management, e.g. traffic lights timed to green and warnings of traffic jams; displacing traffic under the cities; attitude to inexpensive group taxis with prescribed routes; reduction in inner-urban traffic load through reduction in parking opportunities; streetcars as environmentally compatible means of transport; giving public transportation priority; attitude to a common ticket for all means of local transport; intent to switch to public transportation given offerings appropriate to demand; attitude to the arrow for those turning right at intersections controlled by traffic lights. Assessment of the development of means of local transport: expected future frequency of use of car, carpool, group taxis and taxis, bus, motorcycle, moped, bicycle, streetcar, small trains for commuter traffic in the city area, suburban railway, subway, Federal Railway and ship. Assessment of the development of means of long-distance traffic: expected future frequency of use of car, carpool, bus, motorcycle, Federal Railway, motorail train, magnetic suspension train, airplane and ship. Mobility in daily life: reasons for immobility; totals and time budget for daily trips; totals and type of daily activities; primary means of transport and means of transport used altogether; distance traveled per day. Use of public transportation: frequency of use; possession of a time, subscription or network ticket for public transportation; use of park and ride; stops reachable on foot; distance to stops of Federal Railway, train bus, post bus, city buses, private buses, subway, suburban railway, streetcar and taxis. Advantages and disadvantages of local public transportation: judgement on price, frequency, over-loading, timliness, amenities, cleanliness, availability at night and safety, absence of train personnel, safety in bad weather conditions and flexibility; car as supplement or contrast to the means of public transportation. Characterization of local public transportation: easy on the nerves; elimination of burdensome search for a parking place; ticket machines hostile to users; schedules difficult to understand; use of travel time to read; poor connections wasteful of time; contribution to environmental protection; irritation by other passengers; acceptance of a longer trip on foot to the stop. Demand of the operators of local public transportation: stops secure from weather; access free of snow in the winter; daily inspection of escalators and ticket machines; more care with maintenance and design of platforms; denser network of stops; more parking places for park and ride; better security at park and ride parking places; politeness of personnel. Most important advantages and disadvantages of public transportation. Environmental orientation of respondent: interest in the topic environment; comparison of effectiveness of environmentally compatible as well as conventional washing or cleansing agents; destruction of the bases for life by technical progress; assumed exaggeration of environmental problems; attitude to modern medicine; responsibility of desire for children; perceived improvement in environmental situation; resignation in personal environmentally conscious conduct in view of environmental damage from industry; happier life in earlier times; general confidence in solution of environmental problems; utility of transfering from car to public transportation; agreement with prohibition of types of sport burdening the environment; assessment of the credibilityof the information policies of the Federal Government in environmental questions; personal helplessness in view of complicated technology; attitude to closing of companies harming the environment and to a speed limit; technical progress in the service of the production of weapons of annihilation; hedonism; difficulties with evaluation of environmentally compatible products; use of sorting domestic refuse; nuclear energy as most environmentally compatible energy; desire for believable sources of information on the topic environment; prohibition of spray containers to protect the ozone layer; preference for a center of town free of cars; interest in membership in an environmental protection organization; environmental protection as subject in schools; self-assessment as sober and factual observer of the world. Acceptance of increased power prices for alternative energies; personal helplessness regarding possibilities for environmental protection; environmental compatibility of products as argument for exorbitant prices; unemployment or environmental pollution as greater problem; self-assessment of personal environmentally conscious conduct; preference for political support of alternative energies; attitude to demonstrations for environmental protection; assessment of environmental protection efforts of industry; harmlessness of food; assessment of the technical solvability of all environmental problems; readiness to accept longer shopping distances for food from biological cultivation; attitude to separate collection of waste beyond paper and glass; significance of the Greens for general environmental consciousness; assessment of health value of biological food; doing without nuclear energy due to responsibility for future generations; the significance of the contribution to environmental protection of every individual; not purchasing products of environment polluters; preference for food without preservatives. Assessment of the consequences of environmental protection practices in daily life regarding their general effectiveness and one´s own use: attitude to the effectiveness of consumer advice centers; observing hazardous waste regulations; use of recycling paper and refill packages; use of biologically degradable cleansing agents; sorting domestic refuse and rejection of plastic bags for daily shopping; more economical use of drinking water; doing without artifical fertilizers and beverages in aluminum cans; use of water-soluble paints; doing without products with poisonous contents; use of biologically cultivated food; rejection of unnecessary packaging; acquisition of energy-saving household appliances; doing without disposable tableware; use of public transportation; later installation of catalytic converter; doing without the car for short distances. Agreement with selected measures in environmental protection, such as e.g. more intensive consumer education, extra shelves for environmentally compatible products in stores, purchase of spray cans with environmental protection symbol, preference for ´open´ products and beverages in returnable bottles; discrepancy between prettier packaging and product quality; attitude to preservation of the nature reserves in Eastern Germany at the cost of road construction. Attitude to environmental pollution from car and traffic (scale): expected solution of environmental problems through modern motor concepts; preference for environmentally compatible instead of very powerful motors; car as greatest environment polluter; willingness completely to do without the car; desirability of high recyclability of cars and a requirement that manufacturers take products back for recovery of raw materials; attitude to financial incentives for environmentally conscious conduct of car drivers; destruction of countryside through road construction; attitude to legal force for creation of environmentally compatible cars; environmental compatibility of the catalytic converter and of diesel exhaust; classification of the environmental compatibility of diesel cars. Opinions on the consequences of automobile traffic: perceived increase in car traffic at place of residence and classification of this development; ability to bear the consequences of car traffic and expected improvements from further road construction. Attitude to the future of the automobile: future conceivable without car; strengthening of the central significance of the car through electronic traffic control systems; research on alternative energy sources such as rape seed oil, alcohol or hydrogen to propel cars; home work as contribution to reduction of volume of traffic; future chances of the electric car; desire for government support for acquisition of an electric car; rejection of the electric car due to chemicals in the batteries harmful to the environment; solar car as particularly environmentally compatible; combined propulsion through electric and combustion engine as step towards the environmentally compatible car; attitude to freeway tolls. Amount willing to pay for clothing, clocks, jewelry, residential furnishings, television sets, video equipment, stereo system, home computer, PC, house, condominium, provision for old age, car, motorcycle, vacation, travels, hobby, sport, food, drink, concert, opera, theater, books, records, education, further education, antiques and art works. Detailed recording of all vehicles available in household such as bicycle, car, camping bus, camper, trailer and their use in daily life or leisure time; number of cars in household; opportunity to park one´s car in a garage or on the side of the street; distance of parking place from residence; possession of drivers license and class of drivers license; number of persons in household with drivers license as well as class of drivers license; intent to acquire a drivers license; frequency of driving or use of opportunities to ride with someone else; driving motor vehicles as component of occupation. Most important problems and difficulties in traffic: traffic jams; thoughtlessness of other road-users; changing lanes without signaling; traffic calming measures; automobile emissions when driving in convoy; passing maneuvers of truck drivers; orientation problems in strange cities; many 30 km speed zones; too many trucks on the streets; too few lights timed to green; motorcycle drivers in a group and splitting the lane; jungle of traffic signs; construction zones and detours; undisciplined cyclists and cyclists without lighting; continual danger of accidents; traffic noise and traffic jams on the freeway; speed limits; looking for a parking place; inattentive pedestrians; inadequate winter equipment of many cars; nervous, unsure and foolish drivers. Attitude to driving (scale): relaxation or fun at driving; driving as necessity; reducing one´s own speed for environmental reasons; fun in driving fast on the freeway; not driving with fog and snow; feelings of fear and perceived strain in driving; politeness in driving; driving as strenuous work; sport cars lead to aggressive driving style; fun on winding roads; attitude to automatic transmission; driving pleasure on small highways; following closely and use of flashing headlights when in a hurry; significance of additional safety reserves from a powerful engine; speed limit leads to unconcentrated driving; self-classification as safe driver; good feeling from effortless passing of others; defensive manner of driving even with loss of time; risk as attraction of driving; interest in small races, e.g. when starting at a traffic light. Owner of the car driven primarily; purchase or lease; number of kilometers driven annually; exploiting the possible maximum speed limit; possession of car telephone or mobile phone; opportunity to use a company car privately; decision-maker in purchase of company car. Attitude to car (scale): weekly washing the car; pleasure at driving without destination and impressing others with the car; thriftiness or liberalness in purchase of car; functionality of car in the foreground; car as expression of life style; image of the German car brands; ability to enthuse over the car; the car as symbol for freedom and independence; car as interesting topic of conversation; understatement with the car; small cars adequate in city traffic; professional use or leisure time use as selection criteria in purchase of a car; car as short-term or long-term consumer good; preference for considerate driving fashion and driving comfort; interest in the newest model; importance of well-cared appearance of a car; life without a car as a horrible idea; willingness to loan the car; car as prestige object and giving a personal name to the vehicle. Opinion on foreign cars: characterization of Japanese, Italian, English, Skandinavian, American, Czech and German vehicles as well as foreign vehicles in general (image); manufacturing country of preferred car. Detailed judgement on car products from the manufacturing countries Germany, Great Britain, Japan, Sweden, France, Italy, Korea and USA (split: per interview two countries each were compared): judgement on the motor vehicle products regarding care in processing, design, life, quality of raw materials, innovation, prestige, standard of equipment, research status, competition capability, environmental compatibility, trust in brand, market share, presence at trade fairs, inventiveness, reputation in the area of automobile technology, model selection, network of dealerships, reliability of dealerships, image as manufacturer of small cars, upper class or sports cars, cost effectiveness. Attitude to automobile purchase (scale): significance of standard extras; requirements of interior equipment, quality and value of materials used; preference for a sporty fast car or a family car; environmental compatibility, technical refinements, motor type, prestige, inexpensiveness, new value and brand loyalty as criteria for automobile purchase; decision of family council; significance of automobile advertising; considering a change of car. Attitude to car technology (scale): importance of technical aids to make car driving easier; self-classification of knowledge in the area of car technology; interest in technical details or limitation to the functionality of a car; electronics and computers in vehicle construction; increased reliability from complicated technology; preference for highest possible technical security standard; fun with highly technological cars; doing repairs; the significance of passive safety such as airbag and ABS; high speeds and asking too much of most drivers; high performance cars offer increased safety. Attitude to design (scale): interest in timeless design and uncommon cars; comparison of earlier car design with today´s; attitude to wind-tunnel styling and extravagant design for cars; significance of sporty appearance of a car and importance of spoiler and low chassis; indifference of design of today´s vehicles; interest in individual design with a vehicle. Expectations of motor vehicle dealership and customer service (scale): importance of appointments, discussions with the manager, route there, maintenance work completed on time, detailed bill, extent to which informed with additional repairs, arrangement of short-term appointments, trust in the dealership and free loan car with longer repairs; preference for a dense network of dealerships of the automobile manufacturer; taking good care of customers and desire for service outside of business hours; perceived dependence on dealership due to high technology of car. Attitude to tuning and leasing of vehicles (scales): detailed recording of the purchase criteria for a car and requirements of features; service and costs of the motor vehicle as well as insurance, tax and financing opportunities as criteria for purchase; purchase motivation; brand reputation and sympathy for vehicle brands; country of origin and class of vehicles driven by respondent as well as other members of household; classification of vehicle according to a sample picture; brand and model of cars owned earlier and number of cars driven before; first vehicle owned (starting brand); readiness to purchase a different brand or a different model; attitude to convertibles, sports cars, cross-country vehicles, large vehicles, diesel engines and station wagons; degree of familiarity of brands of fuel or gasoline; type of fuel used (unleaded, super) and motor oils; oil quality used; oil change and disposal of old oil; possession of credit card of an oil company; degree of familiarity of brands of tires and type of tires used; use of summer tires and winter tires; sources of purchasing car accessories and car care items; liability insurance and third party, fire and theft insurance for the vehicle; automobile legal costs insurance and international insurance coverage; membership in an automobile club; phase of life of respondent; possession of a telephone; city size; media usage; commercial television. Demography: age (classified); sex; marital status; school education; occupation; occupational position; employment; income; household income; household size; household composition; head of household; number of adults in household; state.
Temporal Coverage
  • 1991-11 / 1992-05
Geographic Coverage
  • Germany (DE)
Sampled Universe
The German residential population 14 years old and older in private households
Sampling Procedure Comment: Multi-stage stratified random sample
Collection Mode
  • Oral and written survey with standardized questionnaire
Data and File Information
  • Unit Type: Individual
    Number of Units: 10975
    Number of Variables: 1571
A - Data and documents are released for academic research and teaching.
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Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA2221 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • SPIEGEL-Dokumentation: Auto, Verkehr und Umwelt. Hamburg: SPIEGEL-Verlag Rudolf Augstein, 1993.

Update Metadata: 2021-04-07 | Issue Number: 89 | Registration Date: 2010-07-22