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Making Working Hours more Flexible

Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
  • Garhammer, Manfred (Sozialwissenschaftliche Forschungsstelle, Universität Bamberg)
  • Gross, Peter (Sozialwissenschaftliche Forschungsstelle, Universität Bamberg)
Publication Date
  • GFM-Getas, Hamburg (Data Collector)
  • ZA:
    • Work and Industry
  • CESSDA Topic Classification:
    • Working conditions
    • Leisure, tourism and sport
    • Time use
  • Abstract

    1. Information on working hours and leisure time 2. Time budget for a week Topics: 1. Oral survey: city size; residential status; number of rooms; possession of durable economic goods; frequency of use of computers in occupational as well as in private areas; frequency of contact with friends outside of personal household; number of friends; club membership; intensity of participation in club life; other memberships; frequency of one-day excursions, short vacation trips and longer vacation trips; frequency of vacation over 5 days and absence from home during vacation time; time worked each week and number of overtime hours per week; type of compensation for overtime; amount of overtime supplement; actual number of hours each week; secondary occupation; flextime; frequency of Saturday work as well as Sunday work; number of successive work days and number of following days off; years of shift work; company requirement or free decision for this form of working hours; estimate of the necessity of shift work in one´s company; since when shift work in the company; arrangement of shift work in two, three, or four shift change; frequency of shift change. The following additional questions were posed to self-employed: free division of working hours; work in the evening and on weekends; separation of work and personal life; employment of partner; time worked each week and overtime of partner; weekend work as well as situation of working hours of partner; shift work of partner; positive or negative effects of one´s own working hours on various areas such as health, course of the day, leisure activities, further education, vacation, partner, child care, raising children and friends; school-age children in household; effects of arrangement of working hours on the possibility to go to government offices, shopping, trips to the doctor, attending club events, libraries, sport facilities and movies; improvement recommendations to reduce the disadvantages of one´s own arrangement of working hours; general satisfaction with working hours; desired number of hours each week; areas of life for which one wishes more time; frequency of lack of time in the leisure area; regular firm appointments in the leisure area; use of an appointment calendar or an electronic appointment calendar, also outside of professional life; company size; religiousness. The following additional questions were posed to shift workers and weekend workers: being on stand-by during free time; ability to plan working hours in advance; extent of co-determination in establishing working hours and time span for announcing individual working hours; persons with whom working hours must be co-ordinated; satisfaction with income considering additional burdens from shift or weekend work. 2. Time budget recording: recording of the time budget for seven weekdays according to the categories personal area, employment, household work, child care, leisure time at home as well as outside the house and information on cooperation partner in these activities; the information was recorded in quarter-hour rhythm.
Temporal Coverage
  • 1991-06 / 1992-01
    1st wave July to August 1991 2nd wave August 1991 to January 1992
Geographic Coverage
  • Germany (DE)
    FRG (old states)
Sampled Universe
Sampling Procedure Comment: 1. Multi-stage stratified random samples (ADM-Mastersample) of persons with a) normal working hours and b) flexible working hours (flextime, part time, job sharing, shift and weekend work) from various (previous) omnibus surveys. 2. Specific cluster sample of respondents in companies with new models of working hours, such as e.g. telephone home workers and so-called time pioneers.
Collection Mode
  • Oral survey with standardized questionnaire and written recording on a time budget form
Data and File Information
  • Unit Type: Individual
    Number of Units: 1545
    Number of Variables: 482
The study consists of two data sets. The survey data set is connected with the time budget data set through reference numbers. This was done primarily to obtain a possible seasonal distribution. Altogether 1545 persons were interviewed in the old states. The primary sample, 1286 persons, is comprised of 797 persons with flexible working hours. These were ascertained through prior GFM-Getas surveys. The sample of 489 persons interviewed with normal working hours and the other half of persons with flexible working hours (comparison group) resulted as well from ADM nets. Beyond this a special sample of 259 respondents is contained in the data set. In companies considered to be ´pace-makers for new models of working hours´ male and female employees were selected in clusters and interviewed. Among the ´pace-makers for new models of working hours´ were counted, among others, Hewlett-Packard, badenwuerttembergische Werkzeughersteller, Kaufhaus Beck, Hotel Moevenpick, BMW-Service und Siemens Megachip.
A - Data and documents are released for academic research and teaching.
All metadata from GESIS DBK are available free of restriction under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication. However, GESIS requests that you actively acknowledge and give attribution to all metadata sources, such as the data providers and any data aggregators, including GESIS. For further information see
Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA2329 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • Vaskovics, Laszlo A., Gross, Peter: Auswirkungen der Flexibilisierung von gesellschaftlichen Zeitstrukturen und Möglichkeiten zur Gewinnung von Zeitsouveränität: Endbericht über das Projekt im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums für Forschung und Technologie. Forschungsschwerpunkt "Arbeit, Technik, Freizeit". Bamberg: Universität, Sozialwissenschaftliche Forschungsstelle 1993, Band 1. Forschungsbericht
  • Garhammer, Manfred: Balanceakt Zeit: Auswirkungen flexibler Arbeitszeiten auf Alltag, Freizeit und Familie. Berlin: Edition Sigma 1996.

Update Metadata: 2020-10-21 | Issue Number: 87 | Registration Date: 2010-07-22

Garhammer, Manfred; Gross, Peter (1992): Flexibilisierung von Arbeitszeit. Version: 1.0.0. GESIS Datenarchiv. Dataset.