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GESIS-Datacompilation. The Development of the German Agriculture and Fishery: Selected Series on Agricultural Land Use, Animal Stocks, Animal Production and Plant Procuction as well as on Deep-Sea-Fishing.

Version
1.0.0
Resource Type
Dataset
Creator
  • Franzmann, G.
Publication Date
2014-11-11
Language
German
Classification
  • ZA:
    • Historical Studies Data
Description
  • Abstract

    Agriculture and Fishery Because of providing the population with food, agriculture occupies a central position in the economic context of a country as well as for the process of industrialization. In 1960 Walt W. Rostow pointed out that the availability of sufficient food reserves was the basis and prerequisite for a sustainable economic growth (see: Stadien wirtschaftlichen Wachstums. Göttingen, 1960). Rationalization and progress in the field of agricultural technology induced an increase of agricultural net-production. Furthermore, the agricultural workforce was made redundant, so that this workforce could be employed in industrial production (Jean Fourastié or William Patty: The ‘Three-Sector-Hypothesis. See: Fourastié J.: Die große Hoffnung des 20. Jahrhunderts. Köln 1954, S. 135f.). „Das wichtigste Kennzeichen der Entwicklung der Landwirtschaft in den heute industrialisierten Ländern ist der relative Rückgang des Gewichts der Landwirtschaft – im Verhältnis zur Summe der anderen Wirtschaftsbereiche – und das zur gleichen Zeit zu beobachtende Ansteigen der Arbeitsproduktivität der landwirtschaftlichen Bevölkerung, …“ (Friedrich Wilhelm Henning (1968), Stadien und Typen in der Entwicklung der Landwirtschaft in den heutigen Industrieländern. In: Th. Heidhues et. al: Die Landwirtschaft in der volks- und weltwirtschaftlichen Entwicklung. BLV, München, S. 42). It is important to underline, that in a first stage of development the yield increases were achieved by improved utilization of agricultural land, with new farming techniques and crop rotation as well as through improved feeding in animal breeding, but not by the use of new machines. „Der Einsatz ganz neuer, wissenschaftsbasierter, industrieller Inputs wie sie die moderne Agrarentwicklung seit Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts zunehmend charakterisiert, so daß man für das 20. Jahrhundert vom Übergang zur industrialisierten Landwirtschaft sprechen kann, spielte für neuzeitliches Agrarwachstum so gut wie keine Rolle. … Ganz im Gegenteil, während der neuzeitlichen Agrarrevolutionen kamen quasi alle Ressourcen für Agrarwachstum, von der Arbeit bis zum Wissen immer noch aus dem landwirtschaftlichen Sektor selbst. … (Es kam während der) neuzeitlichen Agrarrevolutionen zu einem … langanhaltenden Ertrags- und Produktivitätszuwachs nur mit den Mitteln traditioneller, vorindustrieller Technologie: höhere Arbeitsintensivität, flächendeckende Anwendung von schon lange bekannter hochintensiver Fruchtfolgen, graduelle Verbesserung althergebrachter Arbeitsgeräte, verbesserte organische Düngung und vermehrter Einsatz tierischer Zugkraft“ (vergl. Kopsidis, Michael (2006): Agrarentwicklung. Historische Agrarrevolutionen und Entwicklungsökonomie. S. 9). Those actions and measures allowed the agriculture to increase its production sustainably and therefore to meet the increasing demand for food caused by the ongoing urbanization process, the constant population growth and the changing occupational pattern in the 19th century. With the exception of the water-soluble phosphate fertilizer, developed by Liebig between 1846 and 1849, other technical developments have been used to a very limited extent. A much more important role took the access of the individual regions to central markets in urban areas. The obtainment of surplus of crops makes only economic sense if it is possible to offer the surplus on central markets. It was much later, in the 20th century, when research and technical development took a significant influence on the way of agricultural production, which merged into industrialized agriculture. The aim of the datacompilation at hand is to describe the quantitative development of the following different agricultural areas of agricultural landuse, planting and harvesting of field crops, fruit-growing, livestock-breeding, and the production of animal products for a long period. The datacompilation encompasses timeseries which cover the period from the start of the official statistics in the year of 1870 up to today’s Federal Republic of Germany and the year 2010. Because of changes of Germany’s borders over time, the consequences of the first and the second world war, as well as changes in survey classifications it is not possible to provide continuous time series data for the desired period of time for all collected variables. Changes of data-classifications or breaks in the timeseries are described in the notes of the data tables. Time Series in the Online database histat: • A Size of company, economic and agricultural productive land - A.01: Agricultural land by company size, ownership disregarded (1871-2010) - A.02: Economic land by primary use and types of cultivated plants (1871-2010) • B Plant production - B.01: Areas under cultivation by crop types (1871-2010) - B.02: Harvest amounts of important crops (1871-2010) - B.03: Yield per hectare of important crops (1871-2010) - B.04: Fruit trees and grape harvest (1871-2010) - B.05: Fertilizers (1871-2010) • C Farming of animals and production of animal products - C.01: Farms by animal species on the farm (1871-2010) - C.02: Livestock by animal species (1871-2010) - C.03: Milk production and milk use (1871-2010) - C.04: Slaughtering and meat production (1871-2010) • D Deep sea fishing and inshore fishing - D.01: Landings of deep sea- and inshore fishing (1871-2010)
Temporal Coverage
  • 1871 / 2010
    1871 to 2010
Geographic Coverage
  • German Reich (1871-1945) (DXDE)
  • Germany (DE)
  • German Democratic Republic (1949-1990) (DDDE)
Collection Mode
Data and File Information
  • Unit Type: Text Unit
    Number of Units: 139
    Number of Variables: 290
Availability
Download
A - Data and documents are released for academic research and teaching.
Rights
All metadata from GESIS DBK are available free of restriction under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication. However, GESIS requests that you actively acknowledge and give attribution to all metadata sources, such as the data providers and any data aggregators, including GESIS. For further information see https://dbk.gesis.org/dbksearch/guidelines.asp
Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA8552 (Type: ZA-No.)
Publications
  • Die Entwicklung der deutschen Landwirtschaft und Fischerei: ausgewählte Reihen zu Nutzflächen, Tierbeständen, tierischer und pflanzlicher Produktion und zur Hochseefischerei, 1871 - 2010. GESIS-Datenkompilation. Bearbeitet von Franzmann, Gabriele. GESIS-Datenarchiv für Sozialforschung. Köln, 2012.

Update Metadata: 2017-12-29 | Issue Number: 3 | Registration Date: 2014-11-11

Franzmann, G. (2014): GESIS-Datenkompilation. Die Entwicklung der deutschen Landwirtschaft und Fischerei: ausgewählte Reihen zu Nutzflächen, Tierbeständen, tierischer und pflanzlicher Produktion und zur Hochseefischerei, 1871 - 2010.. Version: 1.0.0. GESIS Datenarchiv. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.4232/1.12102