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Comparative Manifestos Project (Programmatic Profiles of Political Parties in 20 Countries, 1945-1988)

Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
  • Budge, Ian (University of Essex)
  • Hearl, Derek J. (University of Exeter)
  • Klingemann, Hans-Dieter (Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin)
  • Robertson, David R. (St. Hugh´s College, Oxford)
  • Volkens, Andrea (Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin)
Publication Date
  • J. Bara, Ealing College, London (Data Collector)
  • T. Bergmann, University of Umea (Data Collector)
  • I. Budge, University of Essex (Data Collector)
  • K. Dittrich, University of Limburg, Maastricht (Data Collector)
  • S. Elliott, Queen's University, Belfast (Data Collector)
  • D.J. Hearl, University of Exeter (Data Collector)
  • R.I. Hofferbert, State University of New York at Binghamton M. Holmstedt, University of Bradford (Data Collector)
  • F. Horner, University of Salzburg (Data Collector)
  • T. Inoguchi, University of Tokyo (Data Collector)
  • W.P. Irvine, Queen's University, Kingston (Data Collector)
  • H. Keman, Free University of Amsterdam (Data Collector)
  • H.D. Klingemann, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (Data Collector)
  • M. Laver, University College, Galway (Data Collector)
  • J. Leipart, University of Bergen (Data Collector)
  • P. Mair, University of Manchester (Data Collector)
  • J. Manor, University of Leicester (Data Collector)
  • A. Mastropaolo, University of Turin (Data Collector)
  • Y. Papadopoulus, Université de Lausanne (Data Collector)
  • F. Petry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Data Collector)
  • C. Rallings, Plymouth Polytechnic (Data Collector)
  • D.R. Robertson, St. Hugh's College, Oxford (Data Collector)
  • T.L. Schou, University of Copenhagen (Data Collector)
  • M. Slater, University of Essex (Data Collector)
  • K. Strom, UCC San Diego (Data Collector)
  • P. Tops, The Netherlands (Data Collector)
  • A. Volkens, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (Data Collector)
  • ZA:
    • Political Parties, Organizations
  • CESSDA Topic Classification:
    • Society and culture
    • International politics and organisation
    • Conflict, security and peace
    • Political ideology
    • Government, political systems and organisation
    • Social stratification and groupings
    • Economic systems and development
  • Abstract

    Content analysis of 1018 election programs in 20 countries. Topics: Content analysts formed 56 topic categories that can be summarized in seven political areas. On the basis of the number of sentences or partial sentences on the individual categories percent proportions were obtained and recorded as the data of this data set. 1. Foreign relations: special relations with other countries; Anti-Imperialism; attitude to military; peace; internationalism; European Community. 2. Peace and democracy: peace and human rights; democracy; position on the constitution of the country. 3. Political system: centralism; decentralism; efficiency of the government and administration; political corruption; political authority. 4. Economy: free entrepreneurs; incentive system; market regulation; planned economy; cooperation; protectionism; economic goals; demand-oriented economic policy; productivity; technology and infrastructure; control function of the government; nationalization; Marxism; anti-growth policies. 5. Welfare and quality of life: environmental protection; culture; social justice; expansion or limitation of the welfare state; limitation or expansion of the education system. 6. Patriotism or nationalism; stress on traditional values; law and order; social balance and harmony; multiculturism. 7. Social groups: special orientation to workers, farmers or the middle class as well as groups of the upper class; reference to underprivileged minorities; mention of non-economic demographic groups such as women, old people or young people.
Temporal Coverage
  • 1945 / 1988
Geographic Coverage
  • Australia (AU)
  • Austria (AT)
  • Belgium (BE)
  • Canada (CA)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • France (FR)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • Israel (IL)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Japan (JP)
  • Luxembourg (LU)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • New Zealand (NZ)
  • Northern Ireland (GB-NIR)
  • Norway (NO)
  • Sweden (SE)
  • United Kingdom (GB)
  • United States (US)
  • Sri Lanka (LK)
Sampled Universe
Party programs of the parties significant for the national assembly.
Sampling Procedure Comment: Census
Collection Mode
  • Content analysis of election programs
Data and File Information
  • Unit Type: Text Unit
    Number of Units: 1160
    Number of Variables: 63
A - Data and documents are released for academic research and teaching.
All metadata from GESIS DBK are available free of restriction under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication. However, GESIS requests that you actively acknowledge and give attribution to all metadata sources, such as the data providers and any data aggregators, including GESIS. For further information see
Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA2570 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • Budge, Ian; Hofferbert, Richard I.: Mandates and Policy Outputs: U.S. Platforms and Federal Expenditures. In: American Political Science Review 84, S. 111-131, 1990.
  • Budge, Ian; Robertson, David R.; Hearl, Derek J. (Hrsg.): Ideology, Strategy and Party Movement: Spatial Analyses of Post-War Election Programmes in 19 Democracies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1986.
  • Hofferbert, Richard L.; Budge, Ian: The Party Mandate and the Westminster Model: Election Programmes and Government Spending in Britain, 1945-1985. In: British Journal of Political Science 22, S. 151-182, 1992.
  • Hofferbert, Richard I.; Klingemann, Hans-Dieter: The Policy Impact of Party Programs and Government Declaration in the Federal Republic of Germany. In: European Journal of Political Research 18, S. 277-304, 1990.
  • Klingemann, Hans-Dieter; Hofferbert, Richard I.; Budge, Ian; Keman, H.; Bergman, T., Pétry, F.; Strom, K.: Parties, Policies, and Democracy. Boulder: Westview Press 1994.
  • Laver, Michael; Budge, Ian (Hrsg.): Party Policy and Government Coalitions. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, London: MacMillan 1992.
  • Budge, Ian; Klingemann, Hans-Dieter; Volkens, Andrea; Tanenbaum, Eric (eds.): Mapping Policy Preferences: Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments 1945-1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2001.

Update Metadata: 2020-10-18 | Issue Number: 88 | Registration Date: 2010-07-22

Budge, Ian; Hearl, Derek J.; Klingemann, Hans-Dieter; Robertson, David R.; Volkens, Andrea (1995): Comparative Manifestos Project (Programmatic Profiles of Political Parties in 20 Countries, 1945-1988). Version: 1.0.0. GESIS Data Archive. Dataset.