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Market integration and development of the westfalian agriculture, 1780 - 1880

Version
1.0.0
Resource Type
Dataset
Creator
  • Kopsidis, Michael (Kopsidis, Michael)
Publication Date
2015-06-08
Language
German
Classification
  • ZA:
    • Historical Studies Data
Description
  • Abstract

    The Study’s topic: In the period from 1789 to 1880 the Westphalian agriculture, characterized by small-scale farming, underwent a prolonged upswing. Between 1830 and 1880 the agricultural production has more than doubled. The central point of Kopsidis’ study lies on the development of the Westpahlian agricultural sector, whereas the investigator analyses the development in terms of economic market influences. The Focus of the study lies on the expanding market demand, the emergence of a coherent internal market and the impact of the railway construction. Structural changes of agricultural markets affecting economic growth are analysed. The evaluation of the farms’ ‘account and credit books’ makes the commerzialisation and market orientation of the Westphalian agriculture, structured by small-scale farming, clear. „ In den hundert Jahren zwischen 1789 und 1880 erlebte die bäuerlich strukturierte, westfälische Landwirtschaft einen langanhaltenden Aufschwung, so daß sich allein zwischen 1830 und 1880 die Agrarproduktion mehr als verdoppelte. Die vorliegende Studie betrachtet dabei die Entwicklung des westfälischen Agrarsektors konsequent vom Markt her. Im Mittelpunkt stehen die expandierende Marktnachfrage, die Entstehung eines einheitlichen Binnenmarktes und die Auswirkungen des Eisenbahnbaus. Wachstumsbeeinflußende strukturelle Veränderungen auf den Agrarmärkten werden untersucht. Eine Auswertung der Rechnungs- und Anschreibebücher einzelner Höfe macht deutlich, daß die Kommerzialisierung und Marktbezogenheit der bäuerlichen Ökonomie Westfalens schon um 1800 weit fortgeschritten war.“ (Kopsidis, M. 1996) Territory and period of investigation: Because of peasant ownership structures and the presence of early industrial agglomerations with rapidly growing non-agricultural population, Westphalia is particularly suitable for studying the development of agriculture in the context of markets. The Westphalian agriculture produced primarily for domestic consumption. Because of the absence of coasts and the low penetration of favorable waterways systematic export production played no significant economic role. Proto-industrial centers in Minden-Ravensberg, the ‘low sauerland’ and especially the starting rise of the Ruhrarea to an industrial core-region of western Germany provides solid conditions for an investigation on the emergence of an agricultural internal market and the intensification of local market structures. The survey period allows to include the period of the regional development of the Westphalian agriculture shortly before the agrarian reforms and the abolition of the feudalism into the investigation. Furthermore, the Ruhr region was in 1780 still in the preliminary phase of industrialization and thus only at the beginning of his rise to the largest industrial conurbation. The demand of the non-agricultural population in the Ruhr in the 30s of the 19th Century – at the start of early industrialization of the Ruhr - was still covered by local production and did not affect the production structure of other Westphalian areas. However, the proto-industrial conurbations of the average mountain region had been reliant in 1830 to a significant degree on grain supplies, so that supra-regional market relations had been in existence already in 1822/35. The years 1878/82 serve as endpoints of the study period, because it is possible for the first time to calculate on the basis of crop production statistics small-scale production data as average size. At the same time this period marked the end of the liberal phase of German agricultural market policy, because in 1878/79 agrarian protective tariffs had been introduced. Therefore, the period under investigation is characterized by a liberal marked policy with few market-regulating state interventions. The responsiveness of family farms on the market can thus be studied under almost ideal-typical conditions. „Aufgrund der bäuerlichen Besitzstrukturen und des frühen Vorhandenseins gewerblicher Verdichtungsräume mit schnell wachsender nichtlandwirtschaftlicher Bevölkerung eignet sich Westfalen besonders gut zur Untersuchung der landwirtschaftlichen Entwicklung im Zusammenhang mit Märkten. Die westfälische Landwirtschaft produzierte in erster Linie für den heimischen Verbrauch. Systematische Exportproduktion spielte bei fehlenden Küsten und einer geringen Durchdringung mit anderen günstigen Wasserwegen keine nennenswerte Rolle. Die protoindustriellen Zentren in Minden-Ravensberg, im Niedersauerland und insbesondere der beginnende Aufstieg des Ruhrgebietes zum industriellen Kerngebiet Westdeutschlands bieten gute Voraussetzungen für eine Untersuchung der Entstehung eines agrarischen Binnenmarktes und der Intensivierung lokaler Marktstrukturen. Der Erhebungszeitraum erlaubt es, den regionalen Entwicklungsstand der westfälischen Landwirtschaft kurz vor Beginn der Agrarreformen, vor Aufhebung der Grundherrschaft, zu erfassen. Des weiteren stand das Ruhrgebiet um 1780 noch in der Vorphase der Industrialisierung und somit erst am Beginn seines Aufstieges zum größten industriellen Ballungsraum Deutschlands. Die Nachfrage der nichtlandwirtschaftlichen Bevölkerung im Ruhrrevier konnte in den 30er Jahren des 19. Jahrhunderts – dem Beginn der Frühindustrialisierung – noch durch die lokale Produktion gedeckt werden und beeinflußte nicht die Produktionsstruktur anderer westfälischer Gebiete. Allerdings waren die protoindustriellen Verdichtungsräume der Mittelgebirge schon um 1830 in erheblichem Ausmaß von Zufuhren zur Sicherung ihrer Getreideversorgung angewiesen, so daß nicht ein völliges Fehlen überregionaler Marktbeziehungen für 1822/35 gegeben war. Die Ausstrahlung der Nachfrage dieser Gebiete ist aber in keiner Weise mit der des aufstrebenden Ruhrgebietes nach 1840 zu vergleichen. Die Jahre 1878/82 dienen als Endpunkte des Untersuchungszeitraumes, weil es für diese Zeit erstmals möglich ist, auf der Basis der Erntestatistik kleinräumige Produktionsdaten als Durchschnittsgrößen zu errechnen. Gleichzeitig markiert dieser Zeitraum mit der Einführung der agrarischen Schutzzölle 1878/79 das Ende der liberalen Phase deutscher Agrar-Marktpolitik. Somit ist der Untersuchungszeitraum auch gekennzeichnet von einer liberalen Politik, in der staatliche Interventionen die Marktkräfte nur in geringem Ausmaß beschnitten. Die Reaktionsfähigkeit bäuerlicher Familienbetriebe am Markt kann somit unter fast idealtypischen Bedingungen untersucht werden.“ (Kopsidis, 1996, S. 83f.) Data and Sources: In this work, extensive document holdings of land-registries for land assessments in the period of 1822/35, which were used to determine the property tax, have been evaluated quantitatively and statistically. Peasant account and credit books are used as a further source with information on prizes and the functionality of rural rent-, credit-, labour-, and selling markets. These documents deals with the microlevel of the agricultural integration process into the market. Price-series are the third source-type, because prices plays a central role in markets as regulatory mechanism. Prices and price developments are the most crucial predictor on agricultural production decisions, which in turn affect the long-term agricultural growth. Agricultural production data for 1822/35 and 1878/82 are only available for the district of Münster and Arnsberg, because only here the files of land assessments are complete. The loss of the sources of the district Minden is not very serious, since the Ruhr region bordering on the western edge of the district of Arnsberg and thus his influence can be detected. (Kopsidis, 1996, S. 86-92) Datatables in HISTAT (Topic: Landwirtschaft (Agriculture)): A. Structural features of the Westphalian agriculture A.1 Population in Westphalia A.01.01 Share of the agricultural population in the total population 1849 and 1882 A.01.02a Population by districts (1828-1880) A.01.02b Population density and population growth by districts (1828 and 1880) A.2 Transport Development A.02.01 The transport infrastructure of the administrative districts of Münster and Arnsberg 1868 A.02.02 The station density in the districts of Münster and Arnsberg 1855, 1865 and 1875 A.3 Soil quality and monetary net income of agricultural land A.03.01 Natural soil quality of the administrative districts of Münster and Arnsberg on district level according to August Meitzen (1866). A.03.02 Monetary net income for tax assessment per acre total area of fields and meadows at the district level in Reichstaler, 1822/35 and 1861/65. A.03.03 Creation of regions on the basis of monetary net income, population growth, and agricultural population. A.03.04 Ranking of the net income amount per acre for the Prussian provinces according to Meitzen for the year 1861/65. A.4 Farm structure and land distribution A.04.01a Sum of farms by region and the share of different farm sizes by region, 1849 and 1868. A.04.01b Increase of agricultural farms by region and farm size class, absolute and percent, between 1849 and 1868. A.04.02 The regional farm structure in the administrative districts of Münster and Arnsberg 1882. B. The market-related development of the Westphalian agriculture B.1 Development of agricultural production: yields per hectare B.01.01 Yields per hectare in kilograms by crop type and by region (estimated) for 1822/35. B.01.02 Yields per hectare in kilograms by crop type and by region (estimated) for 1878/82. B.01.03 Absolute and percental increase in yields per hectare by crop type and by region (estimated) in 1822/35 and 1878/82. B.01.04 Yields per hectare by region and by crop type between 1800 and 1830, according to different sources. B.01.05: Yields per hectare in quintals by acre category for wheat cultivation by regional association, 1822/35. B.2 Development of agricultural production: agricultural land B.02.01 Agricultural land by region and type of usage as a percentage of the total agricultural land 1822/35 and 1878/82. B.02.02 Absolute and percentage change (increase) of the agricultural land 1822/35 and 1878/82. B.02.03 Share of individual crops on farm land in 1822/35 and 1878/82 as well as their absolute change and percentage change. B.02.04 Cultivation of field plants as secondary fruits – area in hectars and in percent of the so called remaining land. B.02.05 Annual production of selected crops and hay in tons and in regional shares, 1822/35 and 1878/82. B.02.06 Annual production of selected crops and hay in tons and in regional shares, 1822/35 and 1878/82. B.02.07 The relation of food grain to feed grains, 1822/35 and 1878/82. B.3 Development of agricultural production: livestock B.03.01 Regional development of livestock by species, absolute 1828-1883. B.03.02 Percentage change of livestock by species and by Region, 1828-1883. B.03.03 Regional stock of pig population in tons 1828, 1864 and 1883. B.03.04 Regional stock of cattle population by cattle groups (i.e. calves, young animals, bulls + steers, cows, cattles in total) in tons and yearly growth 1828, 1864 and 1883. B.03.05 Stock of pig population in relation to the stock of cattle population by region 1828, 1864 and 1883. B.03.06 Regional capital stock of working animals in million Mark at 1883 prices for the years 1828 and 1883. B.03.07 Regional added value of livestock production at 1878/82 prices for 1828 and 1883. B.03.08 Regional added value of plant production at 1878/82 prices for 1822/35 and 1878/82. B.03.09 Regional added value of the agricultural sector in million Mark for 1822/35 and 1878/82. B.03.10 Proportion of working field cows and field steers of the total number of cows and steers, 1882. B.03.11 Proportion of cows of total cattle population 1828, 1858 and 1883. B.03.12 The regional labor productivity in agriculture 1878/82. B.03.13 Number and percentage distribution of regional stock of animals for drawing like horses, field oxes and field cows by farm sizes in hectares, 1882. B.03.14 Regional use of cattles in percent by farm sizes in hectars, 1882. B.03.15 Regional milk cow keeping and pig keeping per hectars of agricultual land by farm sizes in hectars, 1882. B.03.16 Proportion of farms with machine utilization by region, by type of machine (steam engines, threshers, mowers and seeders), and by farm sizes in hectars, 1882. B.03.17 People who live by farming in 1849 and 1882, as well as their growing proportion. B.03.18a The ratio of regional vegetable food production to consumption: Gross and net income by selected crop fruits in tons, 1822/35 and 1878/82. B.03.18b The ratio of regional vegetable food production to consumption: Demand, net income and difference between demand and net income by cereals, potatoes and distillery products in tons, 1822/35 and 1878/82. B.03.19 Crop-import and –export as well as import surplus by the districts of Muenster and Arnsberg as annual average, 1826/28. B.03.20 Relation of available quantity of grain to various demand estimations in the districts of Muenster and Arnsberg in tons, 1822/35. B.03.21 Mead production per capita 1828 and 1883. B.03.22 Animal food production in tons per horse and per cattle (by oats, clover and hay), 1822/35 and 1878/82. C. The Westphalian agricultural market in the integration process from 1780 to 1880 C.01 Farm structure and the development of their income C.01.01 Size, land use and net income of each farm after the Prussian or Lippe cadastral records in percent. C.01.02 The average level of revenue per crop year, 1750-1889 C.01.03 The structure of the income of a farm per decade, 1750-1889 C.01.04 The average sales of grain per crop year, 1750-1889 C.01.05 The average sales quantity of rye, wheat, and grain in total per crop year in Prussian bushels, 1750-1889 C.01.06 Yearly average exports and imports of grain via the custom border of the province Westphalia in 1826 and 1828. C.01.07 Classification of the Westphalian grain-exports and grain-imports by districts 1826/1828 C.02 Income Development of some selected farms C.02.01 Rye cultivation, harvesting rye and rye sale of ‘Schulte zu Dellwig’s’ farm, 1812-1823 C.02.02 Cattle sales of ‚Schulze’s‘ farm, 1811-1886 C.02.03 Cattle sales of ‚Meierherm’s‘ farm, 1848-1883 C.02.04 Cattle sales of ‚Schulte zu Dellwig’s‘ farm, 1810-1819 C.02.05 Cattle sales of ‚Schuth-Schepsmeier’s‘ farm, 1828-1875 C.02.06 Average income of a crop year from ‚extern, non-farm-related activities’ as well as from credits, renting, and leasing, per decade and in Reichstaler, 1750-1889 C.02.07 Income from credits, leasing and renting of the farms ‚Schulte zu Dellwig‘ and ‚Schulze Froning‘,1810/11-1855 and 1886 C.02.08 Credit-, lending-, and renting-income of the farms ‚Meierherm’, ‘Meyer zu Müdehorst’, ‘Behmer/ Schulte’ and ‘Wenning’, 1750-1883 D. Tables of the Appendix D.01 The annual grain consumption per capita according to various sources between 1830 and1860 D.02 The annual average prices in Westphalia for wheat, rye, barley and oats, 1784-1880 D.03 The annual average prices in Westphalia for peas, potatoes, beef and pork, 1818-1880
Temporal Coverage
  • 1780 / 1880
Geographic Coverage
  • Province Westphalia, Districts of Arnsberg and Münster
Collection Mode
  • Archive materials; file stocks of land-registries on land assessments; account- and credit books of farmers; scientific publications
Availability
Download
A - Data and documents are released for academic research and teaching.
Rights
All metadata from GESIS DBK are available free of restriction under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication. However, GESIS requests that you actively acknowledge and give attribution to all metadata sources, such as the data providers and any data aggregators, including GESIS. For further information see https://dbk.gesis.org/dbksearch/guidelines.asp
Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA8559 (Type: ZA-No.)
Publications
  • Michael Kopsidis (1996), Marktintegration und Entwicklung der westfälischen Landwirtschaft 1780-1880. Münster: LIT-Verlag, 1996.

Update Metadata: 2017-12-29 | Issue Number: 8 | Registration Date: 2015-06-08

Kopsidis, Michael (2015): Marktintegration und Entwicklung der westfälischen Landwirtschaft, 1780 - 1880. Version: 1.0.0. GESIS Datenarchiv. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.4232/1.12256