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Candidate Name and Constituency Totals, 1788-1990

Resource Type
Dataset : aggregate data, survey data
  • Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • United States Historical Election Returns Series
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • National Science Foundation
  • National Endowment for the Humanities
Free Keywords
candidates; constituencies; elections; political attitudes; political behavior; political parties
  • Abstract

    This data collection provides the names of candidates, political party name and ICPSR party ID code, and the number of votes received by each candidate in the constituency for elections between 1788 and 1990. The data include county-level returns for over 90 percent of all elections to the offices of president, governor, United States representative (1824-1990), and United States senator (1912-1990). The dataset also includes returns for approximately two-thirds of all elections to the offices of president, governor, and United States representative for the period 1788-1823. Returns for one additional statewide office are included beginning with the 1968 elections. Also presented are 1990 data from the District of Columbia election for United States senator and United States representative. The offices of two senators and one representative were created by the "District of Columbia Statehood Constitutional Convention Initiative," which was approved by District voters in 1980. Elections for these offices were postponed until the 1990 general election. The three offices are currently local District positions, which will turn into federal offices if the District becomes a state.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed consistency checks.; Standardized missing values.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Data File
    • DS2: SAS Data Definition Statements
    • DS10: ICPSR State and County Codes Based on 1960 FIPS Codes (Text File)
Temporal Coverage
  • 1788 / 1990
    Time period: 1788--1990
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Candidates who ran for the offices of president, governor, and United States representative (1824-1990), United States senator (1912-1990), and one additional statewide office, usually attorney general or secretary of state (1968-1990).
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 2 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR00002.v1
  • Renda, Lex. The End of Midterm Decline? Congressional Elections in Historical Perspective. Social Science History.27, (2), 139-164.2003.
    • ID: 10.1215/01455532-27-2-139 (DOI)
  • Gutmann, Myron P., Pullum, Sara M.. From local to national political cultures: Social capital and civic organization in the Great Plains. Journal of Interdisciplinary History.24, (4), 725-762.1999.
    • ID: 10.1162/002219599551877 (DOI)
  • Kernell, Samuel, McDonald, Michael. Congress and America's Political Development: The Transformation of the Post Office from Patronage to Service. American Journal of Political Science.43, (3), 792-811.1999.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Bianco, William T., Spence, David B., Wilkerson, John D.. The electoral connection in the early Congress: The case of the Compensation Act of 1816. American Journal of Political Science.40, (1), 145-171.1996.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Born, Richard. House incumbents and inter-election vote change. Journal of Politics.39, (4), 1008-1034.1977.

Update Metadata: 2016-01-20 | Issue Number: 17 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (1984): Candidate Name and Constituency Totals, 1788-1990. Archival Version. United States Historical Election Returns Series. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.