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Historical, Demographic, Economic, and Social Data: The United States, 1790-1970

Resource Type
Dataset : aggregate data
  • Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Census of Population and Housing, 1790-1950 [United States] Series
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • National Science Foundation. Research Applied to National Needs
Free Keywords
census data; counties; demographic characteristics; economic conditions; eighteenth century; families; historical data; marriage; national identity; nineteenth century; occupations; political change; population; population size; religion; states (USA); twentieth century
  • Abstract

    Detailed county and state-level ecological or descriptive data for the United States for the years 1790 to 1970 are contained in this collection. These data files contain extensive information about the social and political character of the United States, including a breakdown of population by state, race, nationality, number of families, size of the family, births, deaths, marriages, occupation, religion, and general economic conditions. Though not complete over the full time span of this study, statistics are available on such diverse subjects as total numbers of newspapers and periodicals, total capital invested in manufacturing, total numbers of educational institutions, total number of churches, taxation by state, and land surface area in square miles.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: 1790 Census (County and State)
    • DS2: 1800 Census (County and State)
    • DS3: 1810 Census (County and State)
    • DS4: 1820 Census (County and State)
    • DS5: 1830 Census (County and State)
    • DS6: 1840 Census (County and State)
    • DS7: 1850 Census (County and State)
    • DS8: 1860 Census (County and State)
    • DS9: 1870 Census (County and State)
    • DS10: 1880 Census (County and State)
    • DS11: 1890 Census (County and State)
    • DS12: 1890 Census Religious Data (County and State)
    • DS13: 1900 Census (County and State)
    • DS14: 1910 Census (County and State)
    • DS15: 1920 Census (County and State)
    • DS16: 1930 Census (County and State)
    • DS17: 1940 Census (County and State)
    • DS18: 1950 Census (County and State)
    • DS19: 1960 Census (County and State)
    • DS20: 1970 Census (County and State)
    • DS21: 1850 Census Dataset S01 (State Only)
    • DS22: 1860 Census Dataset S01 (State Only)
    • DS23: 1870 Census Dataset S01 (State Only)
    • DS24: 1870 Census Dataset S02 (State Only)
    • DS25: 1870 Census Dataset S03 (State Only)
    • DS26: 1880 Census Dataset S01 (State Only)
    • DS27: 1880 Census Dataset S02 (State Only)
    • DS28: 1890 Census Dataset S01 (State Only)
    • DS29: 1900 Census Dataset S01 (State Only)
    • DS30: 1910 Census Dataset S01 (State Only)
    • DS31: 1920 Census Dataset S01 (State Only)
    • DS32: 1930 Census Dataset S01 (State Only)
    • DS33: 1940 Census Dataset S01 (State Only)
    • DS34: 1950 Census Dataset S01 (State Only)
Temporal Coverage
  • 1790 / 1970
    Time period: 1790--1970
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
The Population of the United States from 1790-1970
Collection Mode
  • (1) This study has been updated and revised as HISTORICAL, DEMOGRAPHIC, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL DATA: THE UNITED STATES, 1790-2000 (ICPSR 2896). ICPSR staff recommends that, for most purposes, researchers use the updated version istead of ICPSR 0003

2005-12-22 All files were removed from dataset 35 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads. Funding insitution(s): National Science Foundation. Research Applied to National Needs (GS-1435, GS-1435A1, GS-1231, GS-2473, and APR75-01320).
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 3 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR00003.v1
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  • Messner, Steven F., Baller, Robert D., Zevenbergen, Matthew P.. The legacy of lynching and southern homicide. American Sociological Review.70, (4), 633-655.2005.
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  • Johnson, Ryan S., Kantor, Shawn, Fishback, Price V.. Striking the Roots of Crime: The Impact of the New Deal on Criminal Activity. University of California-Riverside, . 2004.
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  • Messner, Steven F., Baller, Robert D., Zevenbergen, Matthew P.. The Legacy of Lynching and Southern Homicide: A Spatial Analysis. 67th Annual Meeting of the Southern Sociological Society.Atlanta, GA. 2004.
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  • Thomasson, Melissa A.. From Home to Hospital: The Evolution of Childbirth in the United States, 1927-1940. NBER Working Paper Series.10873, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2004.
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  • White, Katherine J. Curtis. Temporal and Spatial Variation in 20th Century U.S. Great Plains Population Change. CDE Working Paper.2004-12, Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison, Center for Demography and Ecology. 2004.
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  • White, Katherine J. Curtis, Herting, Jerald R.. Growth Curve Modeling: An Alternative Approach to Estimating Patterns of Population Change. CDE Working Paper.2004-18, Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison, Center for Demography and Ecology. 2004.
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  • Dehejia, Rajeev, Lleras-Muney, Adriana. Why Does Financial Development Matter? The United States from 1900 to 1940. NBER Working Paper Series.9551, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2003.
  • Fishback, Price V., Kantor, Shawn, Wallis, John Joseph. Can the New Deal's three Rs be rehabilitated? A program-by-program, county-by-county analysis. Explorations in Economic History.40, (3), 278-307.2003.
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  • Gerteis, Joseph. Populism, Race, and Political Interest in Virginia. Social Science History.27, (2), 197-228.2003.
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  • Rappaport, Jordan. U.S. Urban Decline and Growth, 1950 to 2000. Economic Review - Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.88, (3), 15-43.2003.
  • Zajonc, Tristan. Black enterprise and the legacy of slavery. Review of Black Political Economy.30, (3), 23-38.2003.
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  • Anatolyev, Stanislav. Electoral behavior of US counties: A panel data approach. Economics Bulletin.3, (9), 1-10.2002.
  • Brooke, John L.. To Be 'Read By the Whole People': Press, Party, and Public Sphere in the United States, 1790-1840. Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, April 2000.Worcester, MA: American Antiquarian Society. 2002.
  • Fishback, Price V., Haines, Michael R., Kantor, Shawn. The Welfare of Children During the Great Depression. NBER Working Paper Series.8902, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2002.
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  • Bankole, Katherine Olukemi. A critical inquiry of enslaved African females and the antebellum hospital experience. Journal of Black Studies.31, (5), 517-538.2001.
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  • Beeson, Patricia E., DeJong, David N., Troesken, Werner. Population growth in U.S. counties, 1840-1990. Regional Science and Urban Economics.31, (6), 669-699.2001.
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  • Boyd, Graham. The drug war is the new Jim Crow. NACLA Report on the Americas.35, (1), 18-22.2001.
  • Fishback, Price V., Haines, Michael R., Kantor, Shawn. The impact of the New Deal on black and white infant mortality in the South. Explorations in Economic History.38, (1), 93-122.2001.
    • ID: 10.1006/exeh.2000.0759 (DOI)
  • Fishback, Price V., Horrace, William C., Kantor, Shawn. The Impact of New Deal Expenditures on Local Economic Activity: An Examination of Retail Sales, 1929-1939. NBER Working Paper Series.8108, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2001.
  • Fishback, Price V., Horrace, William C., Kantor, Shawn. The Origins of Modern Housing Finance: The Impact of Federal Housing Programs During the Great Depression. Yale University, . 2001.
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  • Fleck, Robert K.. Population, land, economic conditions, and the allocation of New Deal spending. Explorations in Economic History.38, (2), 296-304.2001.
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  • Nicolosi, Ann Marie. 'We do not want our girls to marry foreigners': Gender, race, and American citizenship. NWSA Journal.13, (3), 1-21.2001.
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  • Blau, Judith R.. Group Enmity and Accord: The Commercial Press in Three American Cities. Social Science History.24, (2), 395-413.2000.
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  • Eisenberg, Ellen. Transplanted to the Rose City: The Creation of East European Jewish Community in Portland, Oregon. Journal of American Ethnic History.19, (3), 82-97.2000.
  • Tolnay, Stewart E., Crowder, Kyle D., Adelman, Robert M.. 'Narrow and Filthy Alleys of the City'?: The Residential Settlement Patterns of Black Southern Migrants to the North. Social Forces.78, (3), 989-1015.2000.
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  • Lee, Chulhee. Farm value and retirement of farm owners in early-twentieth-century America. Explorations in Economic History.36, (4), 387-408.1999.
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  • Hargis, Peggy G.. Beyond the marginality thesis: the acquisition and loss of land by African Americans in Georgia, 1880-1930. Agricultural History.72, (2), 241 -1998.
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  • Price-Spratlen, Townsand. Between Depression and Prosperity? Changes in the Community Context of Historical African American Migration. Social Forces.77, (2), 515-539.1998.
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  • Tolnay, Stewart E.. Educational Selection in the Migration of Southern Blacks, 1880-1990. Social Forces.77, (2), 487-514.1998.
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    • ID: 10.1080/01615440.1996.10112726 (DOI)
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  • Landale, Nancy S., Tolnay, Stewart E.. Generation, ethnicity, and marriage: Historical patterns in the northern United States. Demography.30, (1), 103-126.1993.
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  • McCammon, Holly J.. 'Government by Injunction': The U. S. Judiciary and Strike Action in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries. Work and Occupations.20, (2), 174-204.1993.
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  • Blau, Judith R., Land, Kenneth C., Redding, Kent. The expansion of religious affiliation: An explanation of the growth of church participation in the United States 1850-1930. Social Science Research.21, (4), 329-352.1992.
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  • Correa, Hector, Kim, Ji-Won. A Causal Analysis of the Defense Expenditures of the USA and the USSR. Journal of Peace Research.29, (2), 161-174.1992.
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  • Land, Kenneth C., Deane, Glenn. On the large-sample estimation of regression models with spatial- or network-effects terms: A two-stage least squares approach. Sociological Methodology.22, 221-248.1992.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Redding, Kent. Failed Populism: Movement-Party Disjuncture in North Carolina, 1890 to 1900. American Sociological Review.57, (3), 340-352.1992.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Soule, Sarah A.. Populism and black lynching in Georgia, 1890-1900. Social Forces.71, (2), 431-449.1992.
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  • Tolnay, Stewart E., Beck, E.M.. Racial Violence and Black Migration in the American South, 1910 to 1930. American Sociological Review.57, (1), 103-116.1992.
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  • Fishback, Price V., Baskin, John H.. Narrowing the Black-White gap in child literacy in 1910: The roles of school inputs and family inputs. Review of Economics and Statistics.73, (4), 725-728.1991.
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  • Land, Kenneth C., Deane, Glenn, Blau, Judith R.. Religious Pluralism and Church Membership: A Spatial Diffusion Model. American Sociological Review.56, (2), 237-249.1991.
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  • McKeown, Timothy J.. A Liberal Trade Order? The Long-Run Pattern of Imports to the Advanced Capitalist States. International Studies Quarterly.35, (2), 151-172.1991.
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  • Wilkie, Jane Riblett. The Decline in Men's Labor Force Participation and Income and the Changing Structure of Family Economic Support. Journal of Marriage and Family.53, (1), 111-122.1991.
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  • Abel, Marjorie, Folbre, Nancy. A Methodology for Revising Estimates: Female Market Participation in the United States Before 1940. Historical Methods.23, (4), 167-176.1990.
  • Conell, Carol, Voss, Kim. Formal Organization and the Fate of Social Movements: Craft Association and Class Alliance in the Knights of Labor. American Sociological Review.55, (2), 255-269.1990.
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  • Marks, Gary, Burbank, Matthew. Immigrant Support for the American Socialist Party, 1912 and 1920. Social Science History.14, (2), 175-202.1990.
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  • Walters, Pamela Barnhouse, McCammon, Holly J., James, David R.. Schooling or Working? Public Education, Racial Politics, and the Organization of Production in 1910. Sociology of Education.63, (1), 1-26.1990.
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Update Metadata: 2016-01-20 | Issue Number: 9 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (1984): Historical, Demographic, Economic, and Social Data: The United States, 1790-1970. Archival Version. Census of Population and Housing, 1790-1950 [United States] Series. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.