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Reducing Toxic Chemical Releases and Transfers: Explaining Outcomes for a Voluntary Program

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • O'Toole, Laurence (University of Georgia)
  • Yu, Chilik (World College of Journalism and Communications (Taipei, Taiwan))
  • Cooley, James (University of Georgia)
  • Cowie, Gail (University of Georgia)
  • Crow, Susan (University of Georgia)
  • DeMeo, Terry (University of Georgia)
  • Herbert, Stephanie (University of Georgia)
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Free Keywords
public policy; environment
  • Abstract

    Relatively little is known about the possibilities and limitations of voluntary public programs. The so-called 33/50 Program for reducing releases of certain toxic chemicals into the environment provides a useful instance for examination. In an investigation of toxics-reduction efforts, with states as units of analysis, economic and policy variables help to explain results. In particular, channels and approaches used in communicating policy intentions are related to outcomes. Voluntary programs can make a difference, but the details of execution, including the extent and nature of field efforts, influence outcomes.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Collection Mode
  • (1) Files submitted are 3350.sav (SPSS system file for Windows, binary), containing all the data for each state, and explain3.350 (WordPerfect 5.1, binary), describing the data and how to reproduce the results in the article cited above. Variables are also defined and measured as indicated in the article cited above. (2) These data are part of ICPSR's Publication-Related Archive and are distributed exactly as they arrived from the data depositor. ICPSR has not checked or processed this material. Users should consult the investigator(s) if further information is desired.

This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 1128 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR01128.v1
  • O'Toole, Laurence J., Jr., Yu, Chilik, Cooley, James, Cowie, Gail, Crow, Susan, DeMeo, Terry, Herbert, Stephanie. Reducing toxic chemical releases and transfers: Explaining outcomes for a voluntary program. Policy Studies Journal.25, (1), 11-26.1997.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1541-0072.1997.tb00001.x (DOI)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

O'Toole, Laurence; Yu, Chilik; Cooley, James; Cowie, Gail; Crow, Susan et. al. (1997): Reducing Toxic Chemical Releases and Transfers: Explaining Outcomes for a Voluntary Program. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.