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School Culture, Climate, and Violence: Safety in Middle Schools of the Philadelphia Public School System, 1990-1994

Version
v0
Resource Type
Dataset : administrative records data, census/enumeration data, survey data
Creator
  • Welsh, Wayne N., (Temple University)
  • Jenkins, Patricia H. (Temple University)
  • Greene, Jack R. (Temple University)
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
1998-11-16
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice
Language
English
Free Keywords
academic achievement; communities; crime in schools; crime rates; cultural influences; families; fear of crime; middle schools; school principals; school security; school violence; schools
Description
  • Abstract

    This study was designed to explore school culture and climate and their effects on school disorder, violence, and academic performance on two levels. At the macro level of analysis, this research examined the influences of sociocultural, crime, and school characteristics on aggregate-level school violence and academic performance measures. Here the focus was on understanding community, family, and crime compositional effects on disruption and violence in Philadelphia schools. This level included Census data and crime rates for the Census tracts where the schools were located (local data), as well as for the community of residence of the students (imported data) for all 255 schools within the Philadelphia School District. The second level of analysis, the intermediate level, included all of the variables measured at the macro level, and added school organizational structure and school climate, measured with survey data, as mediating variables. Part 1, Macro-Level Data, contains arrest and offense data and Census characteristics, such as race, poverty level, and household income, for the Census tracts where each of the 255 Philadelphia schools is located and for the Census tracts where the students who attend those schools reside. In addition, this file contains school characteristics, such as number and race of students and teachers, student attendance, average exam scores, and number of suspensions for various reasons. For Part 2, Principal Interview Data, principals from all 42 middle schools in Philadelphia were interviewed on the number of buildings and classrooms in their school, square footage and special features of the school, and security measures. For Part 3, teachers were administered the Effective School Battery survey and asked about their job satisfaction, training opportunities, relationships with principals and parents, participation in school activities, safety measures, and fear of crime at school. In Part 4, students were administered the Effective School Battery survey and asked about their attachment to school, extracurricular activities, attitudes toward teachers and school, academic achievement, and fear of crime at school. Part 5, Student Victimization Data, asked the same students from Part 4 about their victimization experiences, the availability of drugs, and discipline measures at school. It also provides self-reports of theft, assault, drug use, gang membership, and weapon possession at school.
  • Abstract

    This study was designed to explore school culture and climate and their effects on school disorder, violence, and academic performance on two levels. At the macro level of analysis, this research examined the influences of sociocultural, crime, and school characteristics on aggregate-level school violence and academic performance measures. Here the focus was on understanding community, family, and crime compositional effects on disruption and violence in Philadelphia schools. The macro-level analysis was designed to explore the relationship between the level of disorder within inner-city schools and the nature of the communities in which they are embedded. The second level of analysis, the intermediate level, included all of the variables measured at the macro level, and added school organizational structure and school climate as mediating variables. School climate, which was measured by items such as educational expectations, social integration, attachment to school, and school involvement, was hypothesized to be the primary mediating variable and the major influence of school outcomes. Organizational dimensions, such as school staffing, size, and resources, were believed to set limits on school culture.
  • Abstract

    At the macro level, all 255 schools within the School District of Philadelphia were examined using data from three sources: (1) Philadelphia Police Department, (2) community and social structural data contained in the 1990 Census, and (3) school characteristics provided by the Philadelphia School District. The data provide Census information and crime rates for the immediate community in which the schools are located (local data), as well as the community of residence of the students (imported data). At the intermediate level, survey data were used to measure school climate and organizational structure. Principals from all 42 Philadelphia middle schools were interviewed regarding their schools' structural composition and security measures. In addition, teachers and students from 11 of these 42 middle schools were surveyed regarding their attitudes toward their schools, school culture, school disorder, victimization incidents, and fear of crime at school.
  • Abstract

    Part 1, Macro-Level Data, contains arrest and offense data and Census characteristics, such as race, poverty level, and household income, for the Census tracts where each of the 255 Philadelphia schools is located and for the Census tracts where the students who attend those schools reside. In addition, this file contains school characteristics, such as number and race of students and teachers, student attendance, average exam scores, and number of suspensions for various reasons. For Part 2, Principal Interview Data, principals from all 42 middle schools in Philadelphia were interviewed on the number of buildings and classrooms in their school, square footage and special features of the school, and security measures. For Part 3, teachers were administered the Effective School Battery survey and asked about their job satisfaction, training opportunities, relationships with principals and parents, participation in school activities, safety measures, and fear of crime at school. In Part 4, students were administered the Effective School Battery survey and asked about their attachment to school, extracurricular activities, attitudes toward teachers and school, academic achievement, and fear of crime at school. Part 5, Student Victimization Data, asked the same students from Part 4 about their victimization experiences, the availability of drugs, and discipline measures at school. It also provides self-reports of theft, assault, drug use, gang membership, and weapon possession at school.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Standardized missing values.; Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Presence of Common Scales: Several Likert-type scales were used.
  • Methods

    Response Rates: The response rates were 81 percent for Part 2, 66.44 percent for Part 3, and 65.44 percent for Parts 4 and 5.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Macro-Level Data
    • DS2: Principal Interview Data
    • DS3: Effective School Battery Teacher Survey
    • DS4: Effective School Battery Student Survey
    • DS5: Student Victimization Data
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1990
  • 1992 / 1994
    Time period: 1992--1994
  • 1993 / 1994
    Collection date: 1993--1994
Geographic Coverage
  • Pennsylvania
  • Philadelphia
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Part 1: All schools in the Philadelphia School District. Parts 2-5: All middle schools in the Philadelphia School District.
Sampling
Part 1, Macro-Level Data, is a census of all schools in the Philadelphia School District. Part 2, Principal Interview Data, was conducted in all 42 middle schools in the Philadelphia School District. Eleven of these 42 middle schools were selected for Parts 3-5 based on three criteria: (1) level of disruption, (2) level of poverty, and (3) regional representation. An effort was made to include schools that covered the broadest range of each of these criteria.
Note
2006-03-30 File CB2026.ALL.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (93-IJ-CX-0038).
Availability
Delivery
One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 2026 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR02026.v1
Publications
  • Welsh, Wayne N.. Individual and institutional predictors of school disorder. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice.1, (4), 246-368.2003.
    • ID: 10.1177/1541204003255843 (DOI)
  • Welsh, Wayne N.. Effects of student and school factors on five measures of school disorder. Justice Quarterly.18, (4), 911-947.2001.
    • ID: 10.1080/07418820100095131 (DOI)
  • Welsh, Wayne N.. The effects of school climate on school disorder. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.567, (NCJ 181074), 88-107.2000.
    • ID: 10.1177/0002716200567001007 (DOI)
  • Welsh, Wayne N., Jenkins, Patricia H., Greene, Jack R.. Challenges for multilevel models of school disorder: Response to Hoffmann and Johnson. Criminology.38, (4), 1289-1300.2000.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2000.tb01424.x (DOI)
  • Welsh, Wayne N., Stokes, Robert, Greene, Jack R.. A macro-level model of school disorder. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.37, (3), 243-283.2000.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022427800037003001 (DOI)
  • Welsh, Wayne N., Greene, Jack R., Jenkins, Patricia H.. School disorder: The influence of individual, institutional, and community factors. Criminology.37, (1), 73-115.1999.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1999.tb00480.x (DOI)
  • Anderson, David C.. Curriculum, culture, and community: The challenge of school violence. Crime and Justice.24, 317-363.1998.
    • ID: 10.1086/449282 (DOI)
  • Welsh, Wayne N., Jenkins, Patricia H., Greene, Jack R.. Building a Culture and Climate of Safety in Public Schools in Philadelphia: School-based Management and Violence Reduction. Executive Summary.Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 1997.
  • Welsh, Wayne N., Jenkins, Patricia H., Greene, Jack R.. Building a Culture and Climate of Safety in Public Schools in Philadelphia: School-Based Management and Violence Reduction. Final Report.NCJ 171631, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 1996.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Welsh, Wayne N.,; Jenkins, Patricia H.; Greene, Jack R. (1998): School Culture, Climate, and Violence: Safety in Middle Schools of the Philadelphia Public School System, 1990-1994. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02026