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Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth (12th-Grade Survey), 1996

Version
v0
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
Creator
  • Bachman, Jerald G. (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research)
  • Johnston, Lloyd D. (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research)
  • O'Malley, Patrick M. (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research)
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Monitoring the Future (MTF) Series
Publication Date
1998-10-05
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse
Language
English
Free Keywords
attitudes; demographic characteristics; drug use; family life; high school students; life plans; lifestyles; social behavior; social change; values; youths
Description
  • Abstract

    This is the 22nd annual survey in this series that explores changes in important values, behaviors, and lifestyle orientations of contemporary American youth. Students are randomly assigned to complete one of six questionnaires, each with a different subset of topical questions but all containing a set of "core" questions on demographics and drug use. There are about 1,400 variables across the questionnaires. Drugs covered by this survey include tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, hashish, LSD, hallucinogens, amphetamines (stimulants), Ritalin (methylphenidate), quaaludes, barbiturates (tranquilizers), cocaine, crack, and heroin. Other items include attitudes toward religion, parental influences, changing roles for women, educational aspirations, self-esteem, exposure to sex and drug education, and violence and crime -- both in and out of school.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Created online analysis version with question text.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Core Data
    • DS2: Form 1 Data
    • DS3: Form 2 Data
    • DS4: Form 3 Data
    • DS5: Form 4 Data
    • DS6: Form 5 Data
    • DS7: Form 6 Data
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1996
  • Collection date: 1996
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
High school seniors in the contiguous United States.
Sampling
Multistage area probability sample design involving three selection stages: (1) geographic areas or primary sampling units (PSUs), (2) schools (or linked groups of schools) within PSUs, and (3) students within sampled schools. Of the 80 PSUs, 8 were selected with certainty and 72 were selected with probability proportionate to size based on the size of the senior class. In schools with more than 400 seniors, a random sample of seniors or classes was drawn. In schools with less than 400 seniors, all seniors were asked to participate. Each school was asked to participate for two years so that each year one-half of the sample is replaced. Schools refusing participation were replaced with similar schools in terms of geographic location, size, and type of school (e.g., public, private/Catholic, private/non-Catholic). The total sample was divided into six subsamples consisting of an average of 2,700 respondents, and each subsample was administered a different form of the questionnaire, although all respondents answered the "core" drug and demographic questions. The participation rate among schools has been between 66 and 80 percent since the inception of the study. The overall student response rate for 1996 was 83 percent.
Collection Mode
  • To protect the anonymity of respondents, all variables that could be used to identify individuals have been collapsed or recoded on the public use files. These modifications should not affect analytic uses of the public use files.

    MTF does not release detailed geography codes in its public use files because of the disclosure risk it would cause. The MTF sample is drawn to generate representative samples of the four Census Bureau regions of the country (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West), but it does not generate representative samples of smaller geographic areas such as states, counties, or cities. For additional information about data that is withheld from the public use files please contact MTF directly at mtfinformation@umich.edu.

Note
2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.1999-11-10 The "File Structure" section of each PDF codebook introduction has been corrected to document accurately the number of variables, logical record length, and unweighted N for all seven parts of the data collection. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse (5R01DA01411-23).
Availability
Delivery
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (help@icpsr.umich.edu).
Alternative Identifiers
  • 2268 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR02268.v1
Publications
  • Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M., O'Malley, Patrick M.. Trends and timing of cigarette smoking uptake among U.S. young adults: survival analysis using annual national cohorts from 1976-2005. Addiction.2015.
    • ID: 10.1111/add.12926 (DOI)
  • Bachman, J.G., Staff, J., O'Malley, P.M., Freedman-Doan, P.. Adolescent work intensity, school performance, and substance use: Links vary by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Developmental Psychology.1-10.2013.
    • ID: 10.1037/a0031464 (DOI)
  • Clarke, P., O'Malley, P.M., Schulenberg, J.E., Lee, H., Colabianchi, N., Johnston, L.D.. College expectations in high school mitigate weight gain over early adulthood: Findings from a national study of American youth. Obesity.2013.
    • ID: 10.1002/oby.20176 (DOI)
  • Shults, R.A., Williams, A.F.. Trends in driver licensing status and driving among high school seniors in the United States, 1996-2010. Journal of Safety Research.167-170.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jsr.2013.04.003 (DOI)
  • Terry-McElrath, Y.M., O'Malley, P.M., Johnston, L.D.. Simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use among US high school seniors from 1976 to 2011: Trends, reasons, and situations. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.05.031 (DOI)
  • Twenge, Jean M., Kasser, Tim. Generational changes in materialism and work centrality, 1976-2007: Associations with temporal changes in societal insecurity and materialistic role modeling. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.39, (7), 883-897.2013.
    • ID: 10.1177/0146167213484586 (DOI)
  • Bell, Bethany A., Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J., Ferron, John M., Jiao, Qun, Hibbard, Susan T., Kromrey, Jeffrey D.. Use of design effects and sample weights in complex health survey data: A review of published articles using data from 3 commonly used adolescent health surveys. American Journal of Public Health.102, (7), 1399-1405.2012.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300398 (DOI)
  • Jager, J., Schulenberg, J.E., O'Malley, P.M., Bachman, J.G.. Historical variation in drug use trajectories across the transition to adulthood: The trend toward lower intercepts and steeper, ascending slopes. 25, (2), 527-543.2012.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0954579412001228 (DOI)
  • Johnston, L.D., O'Malley, P.M., Bachman, J.G., Schulenberg, J.E. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2011: Volume II, College Students and Adults ages 19-50. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research . 2012.
    • ID: http://monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/monographs/mtf-vol2_2011.pdf (URL)
  • Johnston, L.D., O'Malley, P.M., Bachman, J.G., Schulenberg, J.E.. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2011: Volume I, Secondary School Students. 2012.
    • ID: http://monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/monographs/mtf-vol1_2011.pdf (URL)
  • Johnston, Lloyd D., O'Malley, Patrick M., Bachman, Jerald G., Schulenberg, John E.. Demographic Subgroup Trends for Various Illicit and Illicit Drugs, 1975-2011. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper No. 77.Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research. 2012.
    • ID: http://monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/occpapers/mtf-occ77.pdf (URL)
  • Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M., Emery, Sherry, Wakefield, Melanie A., O'Malley, Patrick M., Szczypka, Glen, Johnston, Lloyd D.. Effects of tobacco-related media campaigns on smoking among 20–30-year-old adults: Longitudinal data from the USA. Tobacco Control.2012.
    • ID: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050208 (DOI)
  • Twenge, J.M., Campbell, W.K., Freeman, E.C.. Generational differences in young adults' life goals, concern for others, and civic orientation, 1966-2009. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.102, (5), 1045-1062.2012.
    • ID: 10.1037/a0027408 (DOI)
  • Barua, Rashmi, Vidal-Fernandez, Marian. No Pass No Drive: Education and Allocation of Time. Working Paper Series.. 2011.
  • Francis, Shelley A.. Using a framework to explore associations between parental substance use and the health outcomes of their adolescent children. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse.20, (1), 1-14.2011.
    • ID: 10.1080/1067828X.2010.517736 (DOI)
  • Garland, Eric L., Howard, Matthew O., Vaughn, Michael G., Perron, Brian E.. Volatile substance misuse in the United States. Substance Use and Misuse.46, (S1), 8-20.2011.
    • ID: 10.3109/10826084.2011.580172 (DOI)
  • Han, E., Powell, L.M.. Effect of food prices on the prevalence of obesity among young adults. Public Health (UK).125, (3), 129-135.2011.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.puhe.2010.11.014 (DOI)
  • Ilgen, M.A., Schulenberg, J., Kloska, D.D., Czyz, E., Johnston, L., O'Malley, P.. Prevalence and characteristics of substance abuse treatment utilization by US adolescents: National data from 1987 to 2008. Addictive Behaviors.36, (12), 1349-1352.2011.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.07.036 (DOI)
  • Johnston, Lloyd D., O’Malley, Patrick M., Bachman, Jerald G., Schulenberg, John E.. Demographic Subgroup Trends for Various Licit and Illicit Drugs, 1975–2010. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper No. 74.Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research. 2011.
    • ID: http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/occpapers/mtf-occ74.pdf (URL)
  • Katel, Peter. Teen drug use: Do weaker drug laws encourage youths to try pot?. CQ Researcher.21, (21), 481-504.2011.
  • Keyes, Katherine M., Schulenberg, John E., O'Malley, Patrick M., Johnston, Lloyd D., Bachman, Jerald G., Li, Guohua, Hasin, Deborah. The social norms of birth cohorts and adolescent marijuana use in the United States, 1976-2007. Addiction.106, (10), 1790-1800.2011.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03485.x (DOI)
  • Maxwell, Jane Carlisle. The prescription drug epidemic in the United States: A perfect storm. Drug and Alcohol Review.30, (3), 264-270.2011.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1465-3362.2011.00291.x (DOI)
  • Syvertsen, Amy K., Wray-Lake, Laura, Flanagan, Constance A., Osgood, D. Wayne, Briddell, Laine. Thirty-year trends in U.S. adolescents' civic engagement: A story of changing participation and educational differences. Journal of Research on Adolescence.21, (3), 586-594.2011.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00706.x (DOI)
  • Terry-McElrath, Yvonne, Emery, Sherry, Szczypka, Glen, Johnston, Lloyd D.. Potential exposure to anti-drug advertising and drug-related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors among United States youth, 1995–2006. Addictive Behaviors.36, (1-2), 116-124.2011.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.09.005 (DOI)
  • Wray-Lake, Laura, Syvertsen, Amy K., Briddell, Laine, Osgood, D. Wayne, Flanagan, Constance A.. Exploring the changing meaning of work for American high school seniors from 1976 to 2005. Youth and Society.43, (3), 1110-1135.2011.
    • ID: 10.1177/0044118X10381367 (DOI)
  • Bachman, Jerald G., O'Malley, Patrick M., Freedman-Doan, Peter, Trzesniewski, Kali H., Donnellan, M. Brent. Adolescent self-esteem: Differences by race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Self and Identity.2010.
    • ID: 10.1080/15298861003794538 (DOI)
  • Clarke, Philippa J., O'Malley, Patrick M., Schulenberg, John E., Johnston, Lloyd D.. Midlife health and socioeconomic consequences of persistent overweight across early adulthood: Findings from a national survey of American adults (1986–2008). American Journal of Epidemiology.172, (5), 540-548.2010.
    • ID: 10.1093/aje/kwq156 (DOI)
  • Johnston, Lloyd D., O’Malley, Patrick M., Bachman, Jerald G., Schulenberg, John E.. Demographic Subgroup Trends for Various Licit and Illicit Drugs, 1975–2009. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper No. 73.Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research. 2010.
    • ID: http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/occpapers/occ73.pdf (URL)
  • Nelson, Jon P.. What is learned from longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking? A critical assessment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.7, (3), 870-926.2010.
    • ID: 10.3390/ijerph7030870 (DOI)
  • Staff, J., Schulenberg, J.E.. Millennials and the world of work: Experiences in paid work during adolescence. Journal of Business and Psychology.25, (2), 247-255.2010.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10869-010-9167-4 (DOI)
  • Staff, Jeremy, Schulenberg, John E., Maslowsky, Julie, Bachman, Jerald G., O'Malley, Patrick M., Maggs, Jennifer L., Johnston, Lloyd D.. Substance use changes and social role transitions: Proximal developmental effects on ongoing trajectories from late adolescence through early adulthood. Development and Psychopathology.22, (Spec. Iss. 4), 917-932.2010.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0954579410000544 (DOI)
  • Trzesniewski, Kali H., Donnellan, M. Brent. Rethinking 'Generation Me': A study of cohort effects from 1976-2006. Perspectives on Psychological Science.5, (1), 58-75.2010.
    • ID: 10.1177/1745691609356789 (DOI)
  • Twenge, Jean M., Campbell, W. Keith. Birth cohort differences in the Monitoring the Future dataset and elsewhere: Further evidence for Generation Me—Commentary on Trzesniewski & Donnellan (2010). Perspectives on Psychological Science.5, (1), 81-88.2010.
    • ID: 10.1177/1745691609357015 (DOI)
  • Tworek, C., Yamaguchi, R., Kloska, D.D., Emery, S., Barker, D.C., Giovino, G.A., O'Malley, P.M., Chaloupka, F.J.. State-level tobacco control policies and youth smoking cessation measures. Health Policy.97, (2-3), 136-144.2010.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2010.04.009 (DOI)
  • Wray-Lake, Laura, Flanagan, Constance A., Osgood, D. Wayne. Examining trends in adolescent environmental attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors across three decades. Environment and Behavior.42, (1), 61-85.2010.
    • ID: 10.1177/0013916509335163 (DOI)
  • Zhong, Hua, Schwartz, Jennifer. Exploring gender-specific trends in underage drinking across adolescent age groups and measures of drinking: Is girls' drinking catching up with boys'?. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.39, (8), 911-926.2010.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10964-009-9413-0 (DOI)
  • Anonymous. Study findings from University of Michigan provide new insights into behavior. Women's Health Weekly.1082009.
  • Clarke , Philippa, O'Malley, Patrick M., Johnston, Lloyd D., Schulenberg, John E.. Social disparities in BMI trajectories across adulthood by gender, race/ethnicity and lifetime socio-economic position: 1986-2004. International Journal of Epidemiology.38, (2), 499-509.2009.
    • ID: 10.1093/ije/dyn214 (DOI)
  • Clarke, Philippa, O'Malley, Patrick M., Johnston, Lloyd D., Schulenberg, John E., Lantz, Paula. Differential trends in weight-related health behaviors among American young adults by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status: 1984-2006. American Journal of Public Health.99, (10), 18932009.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2008.141317 (DOI)
  • Goodkind, Sara, Wallace, John M., Shook, Jeffrey J., Bachman, Jerald, O'Malley, Patrick. Are girls really becoming more delinquent? Testing the gender convergence hypothesis by race and ethnicity, 1976–2005. Children and Youth Services Review.31, (8), 885-895.2009.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2009.04.002 (DOI)
  • Jackson, Kristina M., Sher, Kenneth J., Schulenberg, John E.. Conjoint developmental trajectories of young adult alcohol and tobacco users. Addictive Behaviors: New Readings on Etiology, Prevention, and Treatment.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 2009.
  • Johnston, L.D., O'Malley, P.M., Bachman, J.G., Schulenberg, J.E.. Demographic Subgroup Trends for Various Licit and Illicit Drugs, 1975-2008. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper No. 71.Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research. 2009.
    • ID: http://monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/occpapers/occ71.pdf (URL)
  • Johnston, L.D., O'Malley, P.M., Bachman, J.G., Schulenberg, J.E.. Monitoring the Future. National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2008. Volume I: Secondary School Students. NIH-PUB-09-7402, Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2009.
    • ID: http://monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/monographs/vol1_2008.pdf (URL)
  • Johnston, L.D., O'Malley, P.M., Bachman, J.G., Schulenberg, J.E.. Monitoring the Future: National Survey on Drug Use, 1975-2008: Volume II: College Students and Adults Ages 19-50. No. 09-7403, Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2009.
  • Johnston, Lloyd D., O'Malley, Patrick M., Bachman, Jerald G., Schulenberg, John E.. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Us, 1975-2008: Volume II, College Students and Adults Ages 19-50. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2009.
  • Johnston, Lloyd D., O'Malley, Patrick M., Bachman, Jerald G., Schulenberg, John E.. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2008: Volume II, College Students and Adults Ages 19-50. NIH Pub. No. 09-7403, Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse . 2009.
  • Sargent, James D., Heatherton, Todd F.. Comparison of trends for adolescent smoking and smoking in movies, 1990-2007. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association.301, (21), 2211-2213.2009.
    • ID: 10.1001/jama.2009.745 (DOI)
  • Terry-McElrath, Y.M., O'Malley, P.M., Johnston, L.D.. Reasons for drug use among American youth by consumption level, gender, and race/ethnicity: 1976-2005. Journal of Drug Issues.39, (3), 677-714.2009.
    • ID: 10.1177/002204260903900310 (DOI)
  • The White House. National Drug Control Strategy: Data Supplement 2009. NCJ 225448, Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy. 2009.
    • ID: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs09/ndcs09_data_supl/09datasupplement.pdf (URL)
  • Wallace, John M., Jr., Vaughn, Michael G., Bachman, Jerald G., O'Malley, Patrick M., Johnston, Lloyd D., Schulenberg, John E.. Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic factors, and smoking among early adolescent girls in the United States. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.104, (1), S42-S49.2009.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.06.007 (DOI)
  • Anonymous. Tobacco hits lowest rate since survey began 33 years ago. Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly.1-3.2008.
  • Bachman, J.G., O'Malley, P.M., Schulenberg, J.E., Johnston, L.D.. Demographic Subgroup Trends for Various Licit and Illicit Drugs, 1975-2007. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper No. 69.Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research. 2008.
    • ID: http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/occpapers/occ69.pdf (URL)
  • Bachman, J.G., O'Malley, P.M., Schulenberg, J.E., Johnston, L.D.. Monitoring the Future. National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2007. Volume I: Secondary School Students. NIH-PUB-08-6418A, Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2008.
    • ID: http://monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/monographs/vol1_2007.pdf (URL)
  • Bachman, J.G., O'Malley, P.M., Schulenberg, J.E., Johnston, L.D.. Monitoring the Future. National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2007. Volume II: College Students and Adults Ages 19-45. NIH-PUB-08-6418B, Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2008.
    • ID: http://monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/monographs/vol2_2007.pdf (URL)
  • Bachman, Jerald G., Freedman-Doan, P., O'Malley, Patrick M., Schulenberg, John E., Johnston, Lloyd D.. Revisiting Marriage Effects on Substance Use among Young Adults. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper No. 68.Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research. 2008.
    • ID: http://monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/occpapers/occ68.pdf (URL)
  • Bartkowski, John P., Xu, Xiaohe. Erratum: 'Religiosity and teen drug use reconsidered: A social capital perspective'. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.34, (1), 85 -2008.
  • Little, Michelle, Weaver, Scott R., King, Kevin M., Liu, Freda, Chassin, Laurie. Historical change in the link between adolescent deviance proneness and marijuana use, 1979-2004. Prevention Science.9, (1), 4-16.2008.
    • ID: 10.1007/s11121-008-0084-y (DOI)
  • Nelson, David E, Mowery, Paul, Asman, Kat, Pederson, Linda L, O'Malley, Patrick M, Malarcher, Ann, Maibach, Edward W, Pechacek, Terry F. Long-term trends in adolescent and young adult smoking in the United States: metapatterns and implications. American Journal of Public Health.98, (5), 905-915.2008.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2007.115931 (DOI)
  • Pampel, Fred C.. Differences in the influence of family background and social activities on smoking of minority and white high school seniors, 1976-2004. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health.10, (6), 507-515.2008.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10903-008-9139-1 (DOI)
  • Pampel, Fred C., Aguilar, Jade. Changes in youth smoking, 1976-2002: A time-series analysis. Youth and Society.39, (4), 453-479.2008.
    • ID: 10.1177/0044118X07308070 (DOI)
  • Russell, Jen. Research of Note. Youth Today.17, (7), 312008.
  • Serwach, Joe. More good news on teen smoking: Rates at or near record lows. 2008.
    • ID: http://www.ns.umich.edu/htdocs/releases/story.php?id=6881 (URL)
  • Terry-McElrath, Y.M., O'Malley, P.M., Johnson, L.D.. Saying no to marijuana: Why American youth report quitting or abstaining. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.69, (6), 796-805.2008.
  • The White House. National Drug Control Strategy. Data Supplement 2008.NCJ 221951, Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy. 2008.
    • ID: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs08_data_supl/ndcs_suppl08.pdf (URL)
  • Trzesniewski K. H., Donnellan M. B., Robins R. W.. Do today's young people really think they are so extraordinary? An examination of secular trends in narcissism and self-enhancement. Psychological Science.19, (2), 181-188.2008.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02065.x (DOI)
  • Wallace, J.M., Jr., Goodkind, S.A., Wallace, C.M., Bachman, J.G.. Racial, ethnic, and gender differences in school discipline among U.S. high school students: 1991-2005. Negro Educational Review.59, (1-2), 47-62.2008.
  • Wood, Robert G., Avellar, Sarah, Goesling, Brian. Pathways to Adulthood and Marriage: Teenagers' Attitudes, Expectations, and Relationship Patterns. ASPE Research Brief.Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Human Services Policy. 2008.
    • ID: http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/08/pathways2adulthood/rb.pdf (URL)
  • Wood, Ruth I.. Anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence? Insights from animals and humans. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology.29, (4), 490-506.2008.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2007.12.002 (DOI)
  • Zahn, Margaret A., Brumbaugh, Susan, Steffensmeier, Darrrell, Feld, Barry C., Morash, Merry, Chesney-Lind, Meda, Millelr, Jody, Payne, Allison Ann, Gottfredson, Denise C., Kruttschnitt, Candace. Violence by Teenage Girls: Trends and Context. Girls Study Group: Understanding and Responding to Girls' Delinquency.NCJ 218905, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 2008.
    • ID: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/218905.pdf (URL)
  • Bachman, Jerald G., Freedman-Doan, P., O'Malley, Patrick M., Schulenberg, John E., Johnston, Lloyd D, Messersmith, E.E.. Education drug use relationships: An examination of racial/ethnic subgroups. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper No. 66.Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research. 2007.
  • Bartkowski, John P., Xu, Xiaohe. Religiosity and teen drug use reconsidered: A social capital perspective. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.32, (6), S-182-S-194.2007.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.amepre.2007.03.001 (DOI)
  • Beauvais, Fred, Thurman, Pamela Jumper, Burnside, Martha, Plested, Barbara. Prevalence of American Indian adolescent tobacco use: 1993-2004. Substance Use and Misuse.42, (4), 591-601.2007.
    • ID: 10.1080/10826080701202171 (DOI)
  • Bennett, Stephanie A.. Have We Really Come a Long Way? Looking at the Difference in Gender Expectations in the Future Kids of America Study 1976, 1996, and 2004. Southern Sociological Society.Atlanta, GA. 2007.
  • Carpenter, Christopher S., Kloska, Deborah D., O'Malley, Patrick, Johnston, Lloyd. Alcohol control policies and youth alcohol consumption: Evidence from 28 years of Monitoring the Future. B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy.7, (1), 2007.
    • ID: http://www.bepress.com/bejeap/vol7/iss1/art25 (URL)
  • Johnston, L.D., O'Malley, P.M., Bachman, J.G., Schulenberg, J.E.. Demographic Subgroup Trends for Various Licit and Illicit Drugs, 1975-2006. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper No. 67.Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research. 2007.
  • Johnston, L.D., O'Malley, P.M., Bachman, J.G., Schulenberg, J.E.. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2006. Volume I: Secondary School Students. NIH Publication No. 07-6205.Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2007.
  • Johnston, L.D., O'Malley, P.M., Bachman, J.G., Schulenberg, J.E.. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2006. Volume II: College Students and Adults Ages 19-45. NIH Publication No. 07-6206.Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2007.
  • Johnston, Lloyd D., O'Malley, Patrick M., Bachman, Jerald G., Schulenberg, John E.. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2006. NIH Publication No. 07-6202.Bethesda, MD: United States Department of of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2007.
    • ID: http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/monographs/overview2006.pdf (URL)
  • O'Malley, Patrick M., Johnston, Lloyd D., Delva, Jorge, Bachman, Jerald G., Schulenberg, John E.. Variation in obesity among American secondary school students by school and school characteristics. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.33, (4, Suppl), S187-S194.2007.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.amepre.2007.07.001 (DOI)
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Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Bachman, Jerald G.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M. (1998): Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth (12th-Grade Survey), 1996. Archival Version. Monitoring the Future (MTF) Series. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02268