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Crime Changes in Baltimore, 1970-1994

Version
v2
Resource Type
Dataset : census/enumeration data, event/transaction data, and survey data
Creator
  • Taylor, Ralph B. (Temple University, Department of Criminal Justice)
Other Title
  • Version 2 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
1998-10-08
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice
Language
English
Free Keywords
attitudes; community involvement; crime rates; neighborhood change; neighborhood conditions; neighborhoods; urban areas; urban crime; urban decline
Description
  • Abstract

    These data were collected to examine the relationships among crime rates, residents' attitudes, physical deterioration, and neighborhood structure in selected urban Baltimore neighborhoods. The data collection provides both block- and individual-level neighborhood data for two time periods, 1981-1982 and 1994. The block-level files (Parts 1-6) include information about physical conditions, land use, people counts, and crime rates. Parts 1-3, the block assessment files, contain researchers' observations of street layout, traffic, housing type, and general upkeep of the neighborhoods. Part 1, Block Assessments, 1981 and 1994, contains the researchers' observations of sampled blocks in 1981, plus selected variables from Part 3 that correspond to items observed in 1981. Nonsampled blocks (in Part 2) are areas where block assessments were done, but no interviews were conducted. The "people counts" file (Part 4) is an actual count of people seen by the researchers on the sampled blocks in 1994. Variables for this file include the number, gender, and approximate age of the people seen and the types of activities they were engaged in during the assessment. Part 5, Land Use Inventory for Sampled Blocks, 1994, is composed of variables describing the types of buildings in the neighborhood and their physical condition. Part 6, Crime Rates and Census Data for All Baltimore Neighborhoods, 1970-1992, includes crime rates from the Baltimore Police Department for aggravated assault, burglary, homicide, larceny, auto theft, rape, and robbery for 1970-1992, and census information from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 United States Censuses on the composition of the housing units and the age, gender, race, education, employment, and income of residents. The individual-level files (Parts 7-9) contain data from interviews with neighborhood leaders, as well as telephone surveys of residents. Part 7, Interviews with Neighborhood Leaders, 1994, includes assessments of the level of involvement in the community by the organization to which the leader belongs and the types of activities sponsored by the organization. The 1982 and 1994 surveys of residents (Parts 8 and 9) asked respondents about different aspects of their neighborhoods, such as physical appearance, problems, and crime and safety issues, as well as the respondents' level of satisfaction with and involvement in their neighborhoods. Demographic information on respondents, such as household size, length of residence, marital status, income, gender, and race, is also provided in this file.
  • Abstract

    These data were collected to examine the relationships among crime rates, residents' attitudes, physical deterioration, and neighborhood structure in selected urban Baltimore neighborhoods. The original 1981-1982 study was designed to model neighborhood-level responses to disorder. The purpose of the 1994 study was to see (1) how residents' reactions to crime had changed between 1982 and 1994, and (2) if either neighborhood-perceived incivilities, or neighborhood-assessed incivilities, in 1982 helped predict changes in residents' reactions to crime between 1982 and 1994, after controlling for neighborhood structure and crime.
  • Abstract

    The block-level files contain information about crime rates, physical conditions, land use, and people counts. The crime rate data consist of yearly Part I index crimes obtained from the Baltimore Police Department for all of Baltimore's 277 ecologically-defined neighborhoods, as well as end-of-decade crime rates and percentiles. Census block characteristics from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 United States Censuses are also presented. The block environment assessments and land use inventories were conducted by researchers who were given specific criteria to use in describing the physical attributes of the homes and other buildings in the neighborhoods. The people counts were performed by researchers driving around the study blocks, counting the number of people they observed and categorizing them by age, gender, and activity. To minimize the subjectivity of such assessments, the block assessments, land use inventories, and people counts were conducted by pairs of raters who individually assessed the same blocks. Reliability measures and average ratings were then calculated. The individual-level files contain surveys of residents from 1982 and 1994, as well as interviews with neighborhood leaders from 1994. The interviews for 1982 were conducted by phone, unless the respondent could not be reached that way, and all of the 1994 interviews were administered using CATI (computer-aided telephone interviewing). The community leaders' interviews were conducted in person.
  • Abstract

    The block assessment files (Parts 1-3) contain researchers' observations of street layout, traffic, housing type, and general upkeep of the neighborhoods. Part 1, Block Assessments, 1981 and 1994, contains the researchers' observations of sampled blocks in 1981, plus selected variables from Part 3 that correspond to the items observed in 1981. Nonsampled blocks (in Part 2) are areas where block assessments were done, but no interviews were conducted. These nonsampled blocks had been assessed in 1981 and were located in the 36 neighborhoods sampled in 1981 but not in 1994. Two blocks from each of the 36 neighborhoods were sampled. The "people counts" file (Part 4) is an actual count of people seen by the researchers on the sampled blocks in 1994. Variables for this file include the number, gender, and approximate age of the people seen and the types of activities they were engaged in during the assessment. Part 5, Land Use Inventory for Sampled Blocks, 1994, is composed of variables describing the types of buildings in the neighborhood and their physical condition. Part 6, Crime Rates and Census Data for All Baltimore Neighborhoods, 1970-1992, includes crime rates from the Baltimore Police Department for aggravated assault, burglary, homicide, larceny, auto theft, rape, and robbery for 1970-1992, and census information for 1970, 1980, and 1990 on the composition of the housing units and the age, gender, race, education, employment, and income of city residents. Part 7, Interviews with Neighborhood Leaders, 1994, includes assessments of the level of involvement in the community by the organization to which the leader belonged and types of activities sponsored by the organization. The 1982 and 1994 surveys of residents (Parts 8 and 9) asked respondents about different aspects of their neighborhoods, such as physical appearance, problems, and crime and safety issues, as well as the respondents' level of satisfaction with and involvement in their neighborhoods. Demographic information on respondents, such as household size, length of residence, marital status, income, gender, and race, is also provided in this file.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Standardized missing values.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Presence of Common Scales: Several Likert-type scales were used.
  • Methods

    Response Rates: The average response rate for 1982 was 87 percent. The response rate for 1994 was 76 percent.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Block Assessments, 1981 and 1994
    • DS2: Block Assessments for Nonsampled Blocks, 1994
    • DS3: Block Assessments for Sampled Blocks, 1994
    • DS4: People Counts for Sampled Blocks, 1994
    • DS5: Land Use Inventory for Sampled Blocks, 1994
    • DS6: Crime Rates and Census Data for All Baltimore Neighborhoods, 1970-1992
    • DS7: Interviews with Neighborhood Leaders, 1994
    • DS8: Survey of Residents in 66 Neighborhoods, 1982
    • DS9: Survey of Residents in 30 Neighborhoods, 1994
Temporal Coverage
  • 1970 / 1994
    Time period: 1970--1994
Geographic Coverage
  • Baltimore
  • Maryland
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Urban Baltimore neighborhoods and their residents.
Sampling
In 1981, 66 neighborhoods were randomly sampled from the 236 neighborhoods in Baltimore for block assessment. In 1982, households on these blocks were selected for the resident survey through multistage random sampling. In 1994, 30 neighborhoods from the 66 chosen in 1981 were selected using stratified sampling based on crime data and availability of 1981 block physical assessment data and residential telephone numbers. Households in 1994 were selected through a series of replicate samples until the minimum block quota was reached.
Collection Mode
  • The user guide, codebook, and data collection instruments are provided as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided through the ICPSR Website on the Internet.

Note
2006-03-30 File CB2352.ALL.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.1999-09-15 A new neighborhood number variable was added to Part 8 that matches the neighborhood number in the other data files, making it possible to merge this file with the other data files. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (93-IJ-CX-0022).
Availability
Download
One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 2352 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR02352.v1
Publications
  • Quillian, Lincoln, Pager, Devah. Black neighbors, higher crime? The role of racial stereotypes in evaluations of neighborhood crime. American Journal of Sociology.107, (3), 717-767.2001.
    • ID: 10.1086/338938 (DOI)
  • Taylor, Ralph B.. Breaking Away From Broken Windows: Baltimore Neighborhoods and the Nationwide Fight Against Crime, Grime, Fear, and Decline. Crime and Society Series.Boulder, CO: Westview. 2001.
  • Kurtz, Ellen M.. Violent Crime and Community Structure: Lagged and Simultaneous Effects in Baltimore Neighborhoods from 1970 to 1990. Dissertation, Temple University. 2000.
  • Quillian, Lincoln, Pager, Devah. Black Neighbors, Higher Crime? The Role of Racial Stereotypes in Evaluations of Neighborhood Crime. CDE Working Paper 2000-03.Madison, WI: Center for Demography and Ecology. 2000.
    • ID: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/cde/cdewp/2000-03.pdf (URL)
  • Taylor, R.B.. Crime, Grime, Fear, and Decline: A Longitudinal Look. Research in Brief.NCJ 177603, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 1999.
    • ID: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/177603.pdf (URL)
  • Taylor, Ralph B.. Incivilities Thesis: Theory, Management, and Policy. Measuring What Matters: Proceedings from the Policing Research Institute Meetings.. 1999.
  • Covington, Jeanette, Taylor, Ralph B.. Neighborhood Revitalization and Crime. American Sociological Association. 1998.
  • Bower, S., Taylor, R.B.. Qualities of Ideal and Real-World Neighborhoods. Evolving Environmental Ideals: Changing Ways of Life, Values, and Design Practices.Stockholm, Sweden: Kungl Tekniska Hogskolan. 1997.
  • Bower, S., Taylor, Ralph B.. Qualities of ideal and real-world neighborhoods. Evolving Environmental Ideals: Changing Ways of Life, Values, and Design Practices.Stockholm: Department of Architecture and Townplanning, Royal Institute of Technology. 1997.
  • Taylor, Ralph B.. Crime, Grime, and Responses to Crimes: Relative Impacts of Neighborhood Structure, Crime, and Physical Deterioration on Residents and Business Personnel in the Twin Cities . Crime Prevention at a Crossroads.Cincinnati, OH: Anderson . 1997.
  • Taylor, Ralph B.. Social order and disorder of street blocks and neighborhoods: ecology, microecology, and the systemic model of social disorganization. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.34, (1), 113-155.1997.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022427897034001006 (DOI)
  • Taylor, R.B.. Crime and Grime Over Two Decades Stability, Decline, and Spatial Inequality in Charm City Neighborhoods, Final Report. NCJ 171628, Philadelphia, PA: Temple University. 1996.
  • Taylor, Ralph B.. The impact of crime on communities. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.539, 28-45.1995.
    • ID: 10.1177/0002716295539001003 (DOI)
  • Taylor, Ralph B.. Responses to Disorder and Attachment to Place: The Systemic Model of Attachment, Social Disorganization, and the Concept of Neighborhood Use Value. American Sociological Association. 1994.
  • Taylor, R.B.. Social Order and Disorder of Streetblocks and Neighborhoods: Ecology, Microecology, and the Systemic Model of Social Disorganization. Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology.Phoenix, AZ. 1993.
  • Taylor, Ralph B., Covington, Jeanette. Community structural change and fear of crime. Social Problems.40, (3), 374-397.1993.
    • ID: 10.1525/sp.1993.40.3.03x0084f (DOI)
  • Covington, Jeanette, Taylor, Ralph B.. Fear of crime in urban residential neighborhoods: Implications of between- and within-neighborhood sources for current models. Sociological Quarterly.32, (2), 231-249.1991.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1533-8525.1991.tb00355.x (DOI)
  • Covington, Jeanette, Taylor, Ralph B.. Gentrification and crime: Robbery and larceny changes in appreciating Baltimore neighborhoods during the 1970s. Urban Affairs Quarterly.25, (1), 142-172.1989.
    • ID: 10.1177/004208168902500109 (DOI)
  • Covington, Jeanette, Taylor, Ralph B.. Understanding Fear of Crime: Implications of Between- and Within-Neighborhood Sources. American Sociological Association. 1989.
  • Taylor, Ralph B., Covington, Jeanette. Neighborhood Changes in Ecology and Violence. Criminology.26, (4), 553-589.1988.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1988.tb00855.x (DOI)
  • Taylor, Ralph B., Gottfredson, Stephen. Evnironmental design, crime, and prevention: An examination of community dynamics. Communities and Crime. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research.Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 1986.
  • Taylor, Ralph B., Gottfredson, Stephen D., Brower, Sidney. Attachment to place: Discriminant validity, and impacts of disorder and diversity. American Journal of Community Psychology.13, (5), 525-542.1985.
    • ID: 10.1007/BF00923265 (DOI)
  • Taylor, Ralph B., Shumaker, Sally Ann, Gottfredson, Stephen D.. Neighborhood-level links between physical features and local sentiments: Deterioration, fear of crime, and confidence. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research.2, (4), 261-275.1985.
  • Taylor, Ralph B., Gottfredson, Stephen D., Brower, Sidney. Block crime and fear: Defensible space, local social ties, and territorial functioning. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.21, (4), 303-331.1984.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022427884021004003 (DOI)
  • Taylor, Ralph B., Gottfredson, Stephen D., Brower, Sidney. Territorial cognitions and social climate in urban neighborhoods. Basic and Applied Social Psychology.2, (4), 289-303.1981.
    • ID: 10.1207/s15324834basp0204_5 (DOI)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Taylor, Ralph B. (1998): Crime Changes in Baltimore, 1970-1994. Version 2. Version: v2. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02352.v2