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National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996

Version
v0
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
Creator
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series
Publication Date
1998-06-11
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies
Language
English
Free Keywords
alcohol abuse; alcohol consumption; amphetamines; barbiturates; cocaine; crime; demographic characteristics; drug abuse; drug use; drugs; hallucinogens; health care; health insurance; heroin; HIV; households; inhalants; marijuana; mental health; mental health services; methamphetamine; prescription drugs; smoking; stimulants; substance abuse; substance abuse treatment; tranquilizers; youths
Description
  • Abstract

    This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates. Information is provided on the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among members of United States households aged 12 and older. Questions include age at first use as well as lifetime, annual, and past-month usage for the following drug classes: marijuana, cocaine (and crack), hallucinogens, heroin, inhalants, alcohol, tobacco, and nonmedical use of prescription drugs, including psychotherapeutics. Respondents were also asked about substance abuse treatment history, illegal activities, problems resulting from the use of drugs, personal and family income sources and amounts, need for treatment for drug or alcohol use, criminal record, and needle-sharing. Questions on mental health and access to care, which were introduced in the 1994-B questionnaire (see NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG ABUSE, 1994 [ICPSR 6949]), were retained in this administration of the survey. In 1996, the section on risk/availability of drugs was reintroduced, and sections on driving behavior and personal behavior were added. Demographic data include gender, race, age, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, job status, income level, veteran status, and current household composition.
  • Methods

    Data were weighted based on the five stages of sampling that were used. Adjustments were made to compensate for nonresponse and sampling error. Adjustments also included trimming sample weights to reduce excessive weight variation and a post-stratification to Census population estimates. The final weight variable to be used in analysis is ANALWT.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed consistency checks.; Standardized missing values.; Created online analysis version with question text.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Response Rates: The interview response rates for the three racial/ethnic groups were: 77.1 percent for Whites/others, 79.4 percent for Blacks, and 80.9 percent for Hispanics. The overall unweighted interview response rate was 78.6 percent. A completed interview had to contain, at a minimum, data on the recency of use of marijuana, cocaine, and alcohol.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS1: National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1996
  • Collection date: 1996
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
The civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States aged 12 and older, including residents of noninstitutional group quarters, such as college dormitories, group homes, shelters, rooming houses, and civilians dwelling on military installations.
Sampling
Multistage area probability sample design involving five selection stages: (1) primary sampling units areas (e.g., counties), (2) subareas within primary areas (e.g., blocks or block groups), (3) listing units within subareas, (4) domains within sampled listing units, and (5) eligible individuals within sampled domains. A total of 115 Primary Sampling Units (PSUs), including areas of high Hispanic concentration, were selected to represent the total United States population. These PSUs were defined as metropolitan areas, counties, groups of counties, and independent cities. Of the 115 PSUs, 43 were selected with certainty and 72 were randomly selected with probability proportional to size. Unlike the previous NHSDAs, the 1996 NHSDA did not oversample cigarette smokers aged 18-34. A design feature of the 1996 NHSDA is the overlap with segments previously surveyed in the 1995 NHSDA. About 95 percent of 1995 sample segments were screened again in 1996 to identify and sample occupied dwelling units in these segments that had not previously been interviewed in the 1995 NHSDA. The reuse of 1995 NHSDA segments reduced the overall costs of counting and listing dwelling units in the 1996 NHSDA and also modestly increased the precision of comparisons between the 1995 and 1996 NHSDAs. The five age groups were: ages 12-17, 18-25, 26-34, 35-49, and 50 and older. The three race/ethnic groups were: Whites/others, Blacks, and Hispanics. Blacks and Hispanics were oversampled. The study yielded an 84.9 percent eligibility rate for sample households and a 92.7 percent completion rate for screening eligible households.
Collection Mode
  • Data were collected by Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC, and prepared for release by National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, IL.

    The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse questionnaire and estimation methodology changed with the implementation of the 1994-B survey. Therefore, estimates produced from the 1996 survey are not comparable to those produced from the 1994-A and earlier surveys.

    For selected variables, statistical imputation was performed following logical imputation to replace missing responses. These variables are identified in the codebook as "...LOGICALLY IMPUTED" and "...imputed" for the logical procedure or by the designation "IMPUTATION-REVISED" in the variable label when the statistical procedure was also performed. The names of statistically imputed variables begin with the letters "IR". For each imputation-revised variable there is a corresponding imputation indicator variable that indicates whether a case's value on the variable resulted from an interview response or was imputed by the hot-deck technique. Hot-deck imputation is described in the codebook.

    The "basic sampling weights" are equal to the inverse of the probabilities of selection of sample respondents. To obtain "final NHSDA weights," the basic weights were adjusted to take into account dwelling unit-level and individual-level nonresponse and then further adjusted to ensure consistency with intercensal population projections from the United States Bureau of the Census.

    To protect the anonymity of respondents, all variables that could be used to identify individuals have been encrypted or collapsed in the public use file. These modifications should not affect analytic uses of the public use file.

    Users who wish to replicate results published in the NHSDA Main Findings Report or other SAMHSA reports should use the 1996 NHSDA imputed data for prevalence estimates rather than raw data from the questionnaire or drug answer sheets.

    Family and personal income range variables were constructed from two imputation-revised variables that were deleted from the public use dataset and codebook due to confidentiality issues. Users are advised that the recoded income range variables cannot be replicated from the imputation-revised variables (IRFINC1 and IRPINC1) contained in the public use file.

    For some drugs that have multiple names, questions regarding the use of that drug may be asked for each distinct name. For example, even though methamphetamine, methedrine and desoxyn are the same drug, their use was measured in three separate variables.

Note
2013-05-06 Data collection instrument released.2008-10-23 New files were added. These files included one or more of the following: Stata setup, SAS transport (CPORT), SPSS system, Stata system, SAS supplemental syntax, and Stata supplemental syntax files, and tab-delimited ASCII data file. Modified value labels and missing values for variable GQTYPE to correct previous errors. The variable CASEID was also added to the dataset. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies (283-95-0002).
Availability
Delivery
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (help@icpsr.umich.edu).
Alternative Identifiers
  • 2391 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR02391.v1
Publications
  • Rough, Kathryn, Tassiopoulos, Katherine, Kacanek, Deborah, Griner, Raymond, Yogev, Ram, Rich, Kenneth, Seage, George, III. Dramatic decline in substance use by HIV-infected pregnant women in the United States from 1990 to 2012. AIDS.29, 117-123.2015.
    • ID: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000503 (DOI)
  • Prue, Bob. Prevalence of reported peyote use 1985-2010 effects of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1994. American Journal on Addictions.23, (2), 156-161.2014.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1521-0391.2013.12083.x (DOI)
  • Corman, Hope, Dave, Dhaval M., Reichman, Nancy E., Das, Dhiman. Effects of welfare reform on illicit drug use of adult women. Economic Inquiry.51, (1), 653-674.2013.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1465-7295.2012.00459.x (DOI)
  • Keyes, Katherine M., Miech, Richard. Age, period, and cohort effects in heavy episodic drinking in the US from 1985 to 2009. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.132, (1-2), 140-148.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.01.019 (DOI)
  • Miech, Richard A., London, Andrew S., Wilmoth, Janet M., Koester, Stephen. The effects of the military's antidrug policies over the life course: The case of past-year hallucinogen use. Substance Use and Misuse.48, (10), 837-853.2013.
    • ID: 10.3109/10826084.2013.800120 (DOI)
  • Miech, Richard, Bohnert, Amy, Heard, Kennon, Boardman, Jason. Increasing use of nonmedical analgesics among younger cohorts in the United States: A birth cohort effect. Journal of Adolescent Health.52, (1), 35-41.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.07.016 (DOI)
  • Nielsen, Alexandra, Wakeland, Wayne, Schmidt, Teresa. Simulating health policy interventions to reduce nonmedical use of pharmaceutical opioids. 141st APHA Annual Meeting and Expo.Boston, MA. 2013.
  • Miech, Richard, Koester, Stephen. Trends in U.S., past-year marijuana use from 1985 to 2009: An age-period-cohort analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.124, (3), 259-267.2012.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.01.020 (DOI)
  • Nguyen, Holly, Reuter, Peter. How risky is marijuana possession? Considering the role of age, race, and gender. Crime and Delinquency.58, (6), 879-910.2012.
    • ID: 10.1177/0011128712461122 (DOI)
  • Paddock, Susan M., Kilmer, Beau, Caulkins, Jonathan P., Booth, Marika J., Paculam, Rosalie L.. An epidemiological model for examining marijuana use over the life course. Epidemiology Research International.2012.
    • ID: 10.1155/2012/520894 (DOI)
  • Chen, Chiung M., Yi, Hsiao-ye, Williams, Gerald D., Faden, Vivian B.. Trends in Underage Drinking in the United States, 1991-2009. Washington, DC: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 2011.
    • ID: http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/surveillance91/Underage09.pdf (URL)
  • Chen, Xinguang, Lin, Feng, Stanton, Bonita, Zhang, Xun. APC modeling of smoking prevalence among US adolescents and young adults. American Journal of Health Behavior.35, (4), 416-427.2011.
    • ID: 10.5993/AJHB.35.4.4 (DOI)
  • Corman, Hope, Dave, Dhaval M., Reichman, Nancy E., Das, Dhiman. Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use of Adult Women. NBER Working Paper No. 16072.Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2010.
  • Chen, Chiung M., Yi, Hsiao-ye, Faden, Vivian B.. Trends in Underage Drinking in the U.S., 1991-2007. Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System Surveillance Reports #86.Washington, DC: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 2009.
  • Grucza, Richard A., Norberg, Karen E., Bierut, Laura J.. Binge drinking among youths and young adults in the United States: 1979-2006. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.48, (7), 692-702.2009.
    • ID: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181a2b32f (DOI)
  • The White House. National Drug Control Strategy: Data Supplement 2009. NCJ 225448, Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy. 2009.
    • ID: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs09/ndcs09_data_supl/09datasupplement.pdf (URL)
  • Wisniewski, Angela M., Purdy, Christopher H., Blondell, Richard D.. The epidemiologic association between opioid prescribing, non-medical use, and emergency department visits. Journal of Addictive Diseases.27, (1), 1-11.2008.
    • ID: 10.1300/J069v27n01_01 (DOI)
  • Harder, Valerie S., Chilcoat, Howard D.. Cocaine use and educational achievement: Understanding a changing association over the past 2 decades. American Journal of Public Health.97, (10), 1790-1793.2007.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2006.091108 (DOI)
  • Mourot, Jon Etienne. Psychological Distress as a Function of Multiple Minority Status Stress. Dissertation, University of Miami. 2007.
  • Faden, Vivian B.. Trends in initiation of alcohol use in the United States 1975 to 2003 . Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.30, (6), 1011-1022.2006.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00115.x (DOI)
  • Pollack, Harold A., Reuter, Peter. Welfare receipt and substance-abuse treatment among low-income mothers: The impact of welfare reform. American Journal of Public Health.96, (11), 2024 -2006.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2004.061762 (DOI)
  • Sloboda, Zili. Chapter 12: Forging a relationship between drug abuse epidemiology and drug abuse prevention. Handbook of Drug Abuse Prevention: Theory, Science, and Practice.New York: Springer. 2006.
    • ID: 10.1007/0-387-35408-5_12 (DOI)
  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of Methodological Studies,1971-2005. Methodology Series M-6.SMA 06-4146, Rockville, MD: Office of Applied Studies. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/methodsHY/NSmethods.pdf (URL)
  • Golub, Andrew, Johnson, Bruce D., Dunlap, Eloise. The growth in marijuana use among American youths during the 1990s and the extent of blunt smoking. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse.4, (3-4), 1-21.2005.
    • ID: 10.1300/J233v04n03_01 (DOI)
  • Office of National Drug Control Policy. The National Drug Control Strategy: Data Supplement. NCJ 213692, Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President of the United States. 2005.
    • ID: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs06_data_supl/ (URL)
  • Chen, Chuan-Yu, Anthony, James C.. Epidemiological estimates of risk in the process of becoming dependent upon cocaine: cocaine hydrochloride powder versus crack cocaine. Psychopharmacologia.172, (1), 78-86.2004.
    • ID: 10.1007/s00213-003-1624-6 (DOI)
  • Cochran, S.D., Ackerman, D., Mays, V.M., Ross, M.W.. Prevalence of non-medical drug use and dependence among homosexually active men and women in the US population. Addiction.99, (8), 989-998.2004.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00759.x (DOI)
  • Faden, Vivian B., Fay, Michael P.. Trends in drinking among Americans age 18 and younger: 1975-2002. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.28, (9), 1388-1395.2004.
    • ID: 10.1097/01.ALC.0000139820.04539.BD (DOI)
  • Wu, Li-Tzy, Pilowsky, D., Wechsberg, W.M., Schlenger, W.E.. Injection drug use among stimulant users in a national sample. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.30, (1), 61-83.2004.
    • ID: 10.1081/ADA-120029866 (DOI)
  • Wu, Li-Tzy, Schlenger, William E.. Private Health Insurance Coverage for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services, 1995 to 1998. Psychiatric Services.55, (2), 180-182.2004.
    • ID: 10.1176/appi.ps.55.2.180 (DOI)
  • Chen, Chuan-Yu, Anthony, James C.. Possible age-associated bias in reporting of clinical features of drug dependence: Epidemiological evidence on adolescent-onset marijuana use. Addiction.98, (1), 71-82.2003.
    • ID: 10.1046/j.1360-0443.2003.00237.x (DOI)
  • Ebrahim, Shahul H., Gfroerer, Joseph. Pregnancy-related substance use in the United States during 1996-1998. Obstetrics and Gynecology.101, (2), 374-379.2003.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0029-7844(02)02588-7 (DOI)
  • Wu, Li-Tzy, Schlenger, William E.. Psychostimulant dependence in a community sample. Substance Use and Misuse.38, (2), 221-248.2003.
    • ID: 10.1081/JA-120017246 (DOI)
  • Wu, Li-Tzy, Schlenger, William E., Galvin, Deborah M.. The relationship between employment and substance use among students aged 12 to 17. Journal of Adolescent Health.32, (1), 1-112.2003.
    • ID: 10.1016/S1054-139X(02)00447-0 (DOI)
  • Wu, Ping, Hoven, Christina W., Fuller, Cordelia J.. Factors associated with adolescents receiving drug treatment: Findings from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research.30, (2), 190-201.2003.
    • ID: 10.1007/BF02289807 (DOI)
  • Biemer, P.P., Wiesen, C.. Measurement error evaluation of self-reported drug use: A latent class analysis of the US National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A: Statistics in Society.165, (Part 1), 97-119.2002.
    • ID: 10.1111/1467-985X.00612 (DOI)
  • Chiou, Jeng-Yuan. Met and unmet need for substance abuse treatment among American adults with a self-reported dual diagnosis of substance abuse and mental disease. Dissertation, University of South Carolina. 2002.
  • Garlow, Steven J.. Age, gender, and ethnic differences in patterns of cocaine and ethanol use preceding suicide. American Journal of Psychiatry.159, (4), 615-619.2002.
    • ID: 10.1176/appi.ajp.159.4.615 (DOI)
  • Green-Hennessy, Sharon. Factors associated with receipt of behavioral health services among persons with substance dependence. Psychiatric Services.53, (12), 1592-1598.2002.
    • ID: 10.1176/appi.ps.53.12.1592 (DOI)
  • Holtgrave, David R., Pinkerton, Steven D., Merson, Michael. Estimating the cost of unmet HIV-prevention needs in the United States. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.23, (1), 7-12.2002.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0749-3797(02)00447-6 (DOI)
  • James, Kirk E., Wagner, Fernando A., Anthony, James C.. Regional variation in drug purchase opportunity among youths in the United States, 1996-1997. Journal of Urban Health.79, (1), 104-112.2002.
    • ID: 10.1093/jurban/79.1.104 (DOI)
  • Martini, Shahm, Wagner, Fernando A., Anthony, James C.. The association of tobacco smoking and depression in adolescence: Evidence from the United States. Substance Use and Misuse.37, (14), 1853-1867.2002.
    • ID: 10.1081/JA-120014087 (DOI)
  • McAuliffe, William E., LaBrie, Richard, Woodworth, Ryan, Zhang, Caroline. Estimates of potential bias in telephone substance abuse surveys due to exclusion of households without telephones. Journal of Drug Issues.32, (4), 1139-1154.2002.
    • ID: 10.1177/002204260203200409 (DOI)
  • Pollack, Harold A., Danziger, Sheldon, Seefeldt, Kristin S., Jayakody, Rukmalie. Substance use among welfare recipients. Social Service Review.76, (2), 256-274.2002.
    • ID: 10.1086/339669 (DOI)
  • Becker, Kathleen Lent, Walton-Moss, Benita. Detecting and addressing alcohol abuse in women. Nurse Practitioner.26, (10), 13-25.2001.
    • ID: 10.1097/00006205-200110000-00003 (DOI)
  • Farrelly, Matthew C., Bray, Jeremy W., Zarkin, Gary A., Wendling, B.W.. The joint demand for cigarettes and marijuana: Evidence from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. Journal of Health Economics.20, (1), 51-68.2001.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0167-6296(00)00067-9 (DOI)
  • Finch, Brian Karl. Nation of origin, gender, and neighborhood differences in past-year substance use among Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences.23, (1), 88-101.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/0739986301231006 (DOI)
  • Fowler, Floyd J., Jr., Stringfellow, Vickie L.. Learning from experience: Estimating teen uses of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana from three survey protocols. Journal of Drug Issues.31, (3), 643-664.2001.
  • Golub, Andrew, Johnson, Bruce D.. Variation in youthful risks of progression from alcohol and tobacco to marijuana and to hard drugs across generations. American Journal of Public Health.91, (2), 225-232.2001.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.91.2.225 (DOI)
  • Johnson, Eric O., Breslau, Naomi. Sleep problems and substance use in adolescence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.64, (1), 1-7.2001.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0376-8716(00)00222-2 (DOI)
  • Kandel, Denise B., Griesler, Pamela C., Lee, Gang, Davies, Mark, Schaffran, Christine. Parental influences on adolescent marijuana use and the baby boom generation: Findings from the 1979-1996 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. NHSDA Series.(SMA) 01-3531, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2001.
    • ID: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data/NHSDA/BabyBoom/TOC.htm (URL)
  • Kandel, Denise B., Huang, Fung-Yea, Davies, Mark. Comorbidity between patterns of substance use dependence and psychiatric syndromes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.64, (2), 233-241.2001.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0376-8716(01)00126-0 (DOI)
  • National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse. So Help Me God: Substance Abuse, Religion and Spirituality. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. 2001.
  • Obot, Isidore S., Wagner, F.A., Anthony, James C.. Early onset and recent drug use among children of parents with alcohol problems: Data from a national epidemiologic survey. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.65, (1), 1-8.2001.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0376-8716(00)00239-8 (DOI)
  • Rosenberg, Marsha F., Anthony, James C.. Aggressive behavior and opportunities to purchase drugs. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.63, (3), 245-252.2001.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0376-8716(00)00213-1 (DOI)
  • Anderson, J.E., Carey, J.W., Taveras, S.. HIV testing among the general U.S. population and persons at increased risk: Information from national surveys, 1987-1996. American Journal of Public Health.90, (7), 1089-1095.2000.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.90.7.1089 (DOI)
  • Anthony, James C., Echeagaray-Wagner, Fernando. Epidemiologic analysis of alcohol and tobacco use: Patterns of co-occurring consumption and dependence in the United States. Alcohol Health and Research World.24, (4), 201-208.2000.
  • Bobashev, G.V., Anthony, James C.. Use of alternating logistic regression in studies of drug-use clustering. Substance Use and Misuse.35, (6-8), 1051-1073.2000.
    • ID: 10.3109/10826080009148432 (DOI)
  • Cochran, S.D., Mays, V.M.. Relation between psychiatric syndromes and behaviorally defined sexual orientation in a sample of the US population. American Journal of Epidemiology.151, (5), 516-523.2000.
    • ID: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a010238 (DOI)
  • Cochran, Susan D., Keenan, Colleen, Schober, Christine, Mays, Vickie M.. Estimates of alcohol use and clinical treatment needs among homosexually active men and women in the U.S. population. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.68, (6), 1062-1071.2000.
    • ID: 10.1037/0022-006X.68.6.1062 (DOI)
  • Delva, J., Spencer, M.S., Lin, J.K.. Racial/ethnic and educational differences in the estimated odds of recent nitrite use among adult household residents in the United States: An illustration of matching and conditional logistic regression. Substance Use and Misuse.35, (6-8), 1075-1096.2000.
    • ID: 10.3109/10826080009148433 (DOI)
  • Greenblatt, Janet C.. Patterns of Alcohol Use among Adolescents and Associations with Emotional and Behavioral Problems. OAS Working Paper.Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. 2000.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/nhsda/TeenAlc/teenalc.pdf (URL)
  • Hastings, Julia Faye. Mental Health and Substance Dependence among America's Poor and Non-Poor Populations. Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. 2000.
  • Ma, Grace Xueqin, Shive, Steve. A comparative analysis of perceived risks and substance abuse among ethnic groups. Addictive Behaviors.25, (3), 361-371.2000.
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  • Obot, Isidore S., Anthony, James C.. School dropout and injecting drug use in a national sample of white non-Hispanic American adults. Journal of Drug Education.30, (2), 145-155.2000.
  • Wu, Li-Tzy, Anthony, James C.. The estimated rate of depressed mood in US adults: Recent evidence for a peak in later life. Journal of Affective Disorders.60, (3), 147-218.2000.
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  • Anderson, John E., Wilson, R.W., Barker, P., Doll, L., Jones, T.S., Holtgrave, D.. Prevalence of sexual and drug-related HIV risk behaviors in the U.S. adult population: Results of the 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.21, (2), 148-156.1999.
  • Anderson, John E., Wilson, Ronald W., Doll, Lynda, Jones, T. Stephen, Barker, Peggy. Condom use and HIV risk behaviors among U.S. adults: Data from a national survey. Family Planning Perspectives.31, (1), 24-28.1999.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2991553 (URL)
  • Danseco, Evangeline R., Kingery, Paul M., Coggeshall, Mark B.. Perceived Risk of Harm From Marijuana Use Among Youth in the USA. School Psychology International.20, (1), 39-56.1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/0143034399201004 (DOI)
  • Farrelly, Matthew C., Bray, Jeremy W., Zarkin, Gary A., Wendling, Brett W., Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo. The effects of prices and policies on the demand for marijuana: Evidence from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. NBER Working Paper Series.W6940, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 1999.
    • ID: http://papers.nber.org/papers/W6940.pdf (URL)
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    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/NHSDA/A-9/TOC.htm (URL)
  • Townsend, Tara N., Lane, Julie D., Dewa, Carolyn S., Brittingham, Angela M., Pergamit, Michael. Substance use and mental health characteristics by employment status . Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. 1999.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/NHSDA/A10.pdf (URL)
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  • Brittingham, A., Choy, W., Dewa, C., Gerstein, D., Ghadialy, R., Cerbone, F., Hoffmann, J., Huang, L., Johnson, R., Kovar, M.G., Lane, J., Larison, C., Ragin, A., Toce, M., Townsend, T., Zhang, Z.. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Main Findings 1996. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse Series.(SMA) 98-3200, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 1998.
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Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 8 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies (1998): National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996. Archival Version. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02391