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Pathways to Adulthood: A Three-Generation Urban Study, 1960-1994: [Baltimore, Maryland]

Resource Type
Dataset : census/enumeration data, clinical data, survey data
  • Hardy, Janet B.
  • Shapiro, Sam
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Publication Place
Ann Arbor, Michigan
  • Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research
Funding Reference
  • Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Free Keywords
Schema: ICPSR
birth; child development; children; education; employment; families; family histories; health; housing conditions; neighborhood characteristics; pregnancy; prenatal care; psychological evaluation; reproductive history; urban areas
  • Abstract

    This collection incorporates both prospective and retrospective data on three generations of families initially living in inner-city Baltimore, Maryland. The prospective data were selected from data collected as part of the Johns Hopkins Collaborative Perinatal Study (JHCPS), a survey of pregnant women seeking prenatal care and delivery at Johns Hopkins Hospital during 1960-1964. JHCPS studied these women (the first-generation mothers, abbreviated as G1) and the children born to them during 1960-1965 (the second-generation children, abbreviated as G2) until the children were 8 years old. The retrospective data come from a follow-up study, conducted in 1992-1994, of G1, G2, and the children born to G2 (the third-generation children, abbreviated as G3). Data from JHCPS on G1 include obstetrical and reproductive history at registration for prenatal care, sociological/family history variables at or around delivery of G2, observations of mother with child when G2 was 4 months old and 8 months old, and family history, demographic, and sociological variables when G2 was age 7. For G2, the data from JHCPS include delivery room observations at birth, pediatric examination data at age 4 months, developmental evaluation data at age 8 months, pediatric-neurological examination data at age 12 months, language, hearing, and speech evaluation summary data at age 36 months, psychological, behavior profile, physical growth, and other tests at age 48 months, psychological, motor, behavior, neurological, vision, physical, and other tests at age 7-1/2 years, and language, hearing, and speech evaluations, physical growth, interval medical history, and other tests at age 8 years. Retrospective data from the follow-up study on G1 include variables on education, employment, family composition, health and health care usage, housing conditions, income and income sources, marital status, partnerships and changes, neighborhood characteristics at registration to JHCPS and current, and reproductive history. For G2, data from the follow-up include information on aspirations, education, schooling, employment, family composition, health and health care usage, housing conditions, income and income sources, legal problems, living arrangements, marriage, partnership and changes, neighborhood characteristics at birth, at ages 11/12 and 16/17, and current, reproductive history, social relationships, smoking, and substance abuse. Data for the assessed third-generation children, i.e., G3s who were 7-8 years old during the follow-up period, include information on cognitive development, academic achievement and behavior, prenatal care, health, day care, and parental aspirations.
  • Abstract


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: First-Generation Mothers Data
    • DS2: Second-Generation Children Data
    • DS3: Assessed Third-Generation Data
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1960--1994
  • 1960 / 1994
Geographic Coverage
  • Baltimore
  • Maryland
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Pregnant women seeking prenatal care and delivery at Johns Hopkins Hospital during 1960-1964, their children, and their children's children.
G1s were selected for JHCPS on the basis of the last digit of their hospital history number at Johns Hopkins Hospital, which was assigned from a central hospital file at the point of first patient contact. The sample size was increased from approximately 30 percent of prenatal clinic registrants in 1960 until it reached about 70 percent in 1963 and 100 percent in 1964. G2: Children born to G1s during 1960-1965 who completed the 7- and/or 8-year-old assessments of the JHCPS. At the time of the follow-up, G2s were between 27-33 years old. Assessed G3: Children born to G2s who were 7-8 years old during the follow-up period, 1992-1994.
2019-11-26 This study has had its variables added to the Social Science Variable Database through the creation of XML documentation.2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions. Funding institution(s): Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF 020568).
One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 2420 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR02420.v1
  • Slocum, Lee A.. General strain theory and the development of stressors and substance use over time: An empirical examination. Journal of Criminal Justice.38, (6), 1100-1112.2010.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2010.08.002 (DOI)
  • Chen, C.Y., Lawlor, J.P., Duggan, A.K., Hardy, J.B., Eaton, W.W.. Mild cognitive impairment in early life and mental health problems in adulthood. American Journal of Public Health.96, 1772-1778.2006.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2004.057075 (DOI)
  • Misra, D.P., Astone, N., Lynch, C.D.. Maternal smoking and birth weight: Interaction with parity and mother's own in utero exposure to smoking. Epidemiology.16, 288-293.2005.
    • ID: 10.1097/ (DOI)
  • Hardy, Janet B.. The Collaborative Perinatal Project: Lessons and legacy. Annals of Epidemiology.13, (5), 303-311.2003.
    • ID: 10.1016/S1047-2797(02)00479-9 (DOI)
  • Piquero, Alex R., Lawton, Brian. Individual risk for crime is exacerbated in poor familial and neighborhood contexts: The contribution of low birth weight, family adversity, and neighborhood disadvantage to life course-persistent offending. New Frontiers in Socialization, v. 7.Amsterdam: JAI. 2002.
    • ID: 10.1016/S1040-2608(02)80037-5 (DOI)
  • Hardy, Janet B., Astone, Nan M., Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Shapiro, Sam, Miller, Therese L.. Like mother, like child: Intergenerational patterns of age at first birth and associations with childhood and adolescent characteristics and adult outcomes in the second generation. Developmental Psychology.34, (6), 1220-1232.1998.
    • ID: 10.1037/0012-1649.34.6.1220 (DOI)
  • Hardy, J.B., Shapiro, S., Astone, N.M., Miller, T.L., Brooks-Gunn, J., Hilton, S.C.. Adolescent childbearing revisited: The age of inner-city mothers at delivery is a determinant of their children's self-sufficiency at age 27 to 33. Pediatrics.100, 802-809.1997.
    • ID: 10.1542/peds.100.5.802 (DOI)
  • Hardy, Janet B., Shapiro, Sam, Mellits, E. David., Skinner, Elizabeth A., Astone, Nan Marie, Ensminger, Margaret, LaVeist, Thomas, Baumgardner, Rosemary A., Starfield, Barbara H.. Self-sufficiency at ages 27 to 33 years: Factors present between birth and 18 years that predict educational attainment among children born to inner-city families. Pediatrics.99, (1), 80-87.1997.
    • ID: 10.1542/peds.99.1.80 (DOI)

Update Metadata: 2019-11-26 | Issue Number: 7 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Hardy, Janet B.; Shapiro, Sam (1999): Pathways to Adulthood: A Three-Generation Urban Study, 1960-1994: [Baltimore, Maryland]. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.