Eurobarometer 44.3OVR: Employment, Unemployment, and Gender Equality, February-April 1996

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • Reif, Karlheinz
  • Marlier, Eric
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Eurobarometer Survey Series
Publication Date
Free Keywords
attitudes; economic integration; employment; European unification; European Union; gender issues; job satisfaction; life satisfaction; occupations; political influence; public opinion; quality of life; social change; unemployment
  • Abstract

    This round of Eurobarometer surveys queried respondents on a few standard Eurobarometer measures such as whether they attempted to persuade others close to them to share their views on subjects they held strong opinions about, whether they discussed political matters, and how they viewed the need for societal change, but the primary focus of the surveys was on employment, unemployment, and gender equality. During the fieldwork for Eurobarometer 44.3 (see EUROBAROMETER 44.3: HEALTH CARE ISSUES AND PUBLIC SECURITY, FEBRUARY-APRIL 1996 [ICPSR 6752]), an oversample (approximately 300 per country) of unemployed persons and housewives/househusbands, aged 15 years and over, was added to the basic sample and subsequently administered an additional set of questions. Students and retired were excluded from the oversample. Respondents who were employed or self-employed were asked questions concerning their job titles, the ratio of women to men holding the same title, number of people employed at their workplaces, how long they were continuously employed/self-employed, how they found out about their jobs, the type of organizations for which they worked, the number of hours worked, job satisfaction, the type of communication equipment used, and the circumstances under which they would reduce their hours or take unpaid leave. Employed and self-employed respondents were asked about the pay, training, skill level, variety, amount, pressure, and interest involved in their work. They also compared their jobs with jobs they were doing five years ago. Non-self-employed workers provided additional information regarding their level of involvement in decisions that affected their jobs, existence of promotional opportunities, indices of pay raises or dismissal, likelihood of leaving their jobs, and commitment to their current employers. Questions posed to unemployed respondents covered how long they had been unemployed, their former occupation, reasons for leaving their last position, and whether they had received any compensation. They were also asked if they were looking for a job, what approaches they used to find a job, the amount of time spent looking for a job, problems in trying to find a job, whether they would consider a position requiring different skills, a lower level of skills, worse physical conditions, or different hours, or if they would relocate. These respondents also indicated whether they had experienced boredom, depression, family tensions, loss of self-confidence, not enough money, increased difficulty in rearing children, or lack of contact with people as a result of being unemployed. All respondents were asked questions concerning gender equality. Respondents were asked to assess the current work situation for women with respect to wages, job security, promotional opportunities, and the number and variety of jobs available. Respondents were also asked to evaluate reasons why women less often held positions of responsibility and to prioritize areas of action to be taken to remedy existing inequalities. Respondents also rated the impact of women's working on the well-being of men, children, women, families, and couples. Demographic data collected on respondents include gender, age, nationality, marital status, occupation, income, left-right political self-placement, age at completion of education, number of people in household, number of children under 15 in household, subjective size of community, and region of residence.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed consistency checks.; Standardized missing values.; Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • 1996-02-27 / 1996-04-03
    Time period: 1996-02-27--1996-04-03
  • 1996-02-27 / 1996-04-03
    Collection date: 1996-02-27--1996-04-03
Geographic Coverage
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Denmark
  • Europe
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Luxembourg
  • Netherlands
  • Portugal
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • United Kingdom
  • Global
Sampled Universe
Citizens of the EU, aged 15 and over, residing in the 15 EU member countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.
Multistage national probability samples.
Collection Mode
  • (1) An oversample (approximately 300 per country) of unemployed persons and housewives/househusbands, aged 15 years and over, was added to the basic sample drawn for Eurobarometer 44.3 (ICPSR 6752) and subsequently administered an additional set of questions. Students and retired persons were excluded from the oversample. Also, there was no oversample for Luxembourg and Northern Ireland, and 14 cases from Luxembourg and 2 cases from Northern Ireland were dropped. (2) Three respondents (ICPSR CASE ID 18571, 18607, and 19299) with non-EU nationalities were permitted to complete interviews. If desired, these cases can be excluded from analysis. (3) The code 13 ("Not applicable -- self-employed") for the variable V92 (Q.16) does not correspond with the distribution of code 01 ("Self-employed") for the variable V67 (Q.8). (4) Some cases coded as 0 ("NA") in V140-V144 (Q.25A) were allowed to be asked Q.25B while others were not. (5) The distribution of the variable V273 (Q.64) is not logically consistent with the distribution of V210 (Q.43). (6) The complete questionnaire is being provided for both Eurobarometer 44.3 (ICPSR 6752) and Eurobarometer 44.3OVR (ICPSR 2443). Response data, however, are divided between the two studies in the following manner: EB44.3: Q.1 to Q.4B, Q.5B, Q.111 to Q.155, demographic and protocol questions, and EB44.3OVR: Q.1 to Q.110, demographic and protocol questions. (7) The fieldwork dates in the data file for Ireland, Great Britain, Northern Ireland, and Sweden are not consistent with fieldwork dates provided by INRA (Europe) in the technical specification attached to the questionnaire. (8) The codebook is provided by ICPSR as an ASCII text file and as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file, and the data collection instrument is provided by ZA as a PDF file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.

2002-09-19 The data have been further processed by ICPSR, SAS data definition statements have been added, and the SPSS data definition statements have been updated. Also, the codebook is now available in both ASCII and PDF form, and the data collection instrument is now available as a PDF file.
This study is freely available to ICPSR member institutions via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 2443 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • MacInnes, John. Work–life balance in Europe: A response to the baby bust or reward for the baby boomers?. European Societies.8, (2), 223-249.2006.
    • ID: 10.1080/14616690600644988 (DOI)
  • Rueda, David. Social democracy and active labour-market policies: insiders, outsiders and the politics of employment promotion. British Journal of Political Science.36, (3), 385 -2006.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0007123406000214 (DOI)
  • Rueda, David. Insider-outsider politics in industrialized democracies: the challenge to social democratic parties. American Political Science Review.99, (1), 61 -2005.
    • ID: 10.1017/S000305540505149X (DOI)
  • Blanchflower, David G., Oswald, Andrew J.. Well-being over time in Britain and the USA. Journal of Public Economics.88, (7-8), 1359-1386.2004.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15