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Cross-National Indicators of Liberal Democracy, 1950-1990

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • Bollen, Kenneth A.
Other Title
  • Version 2 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • National Science Foundation
Free Keywords
civil rights; constitutions; democracy; economic indicators; freedom; government; government performance; nations; political issues; political participation; political parties; social indicators; world politics
  • Abstract

    This study, a collection of crossnational measures of political democracy, contains over 800 variables for most of the world's independent countries. Political, social, and economic measures are available in the data file, and topics include adult suffrage, civil liberties, political rights, the openness, fairness, and competitiveness of the electoral process, executive and legislative selection and effectiveness, political party legitimacy, political participation, limitations on the executive branch of the government, level of democratization, economic openness, constitutional development, government legitimacy, and the outlook for freedom. A series of variables focuses on freedom and barriers to freedom, including freedom of peaceful assembly and association, mail censorship, women's rights, freedom of information and technology, freedom of political opposition, and freedom of the press. Compulsory membership in state organizations and political parties and compulsory religion in schools are addressed as well.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • 1950 / 1990
    Time period: 1950--1990
  • 1950 / 1990
    Collection date: 1950--1990
Geographic Coverage
  • Global
Sampled Universe
Cross-national indicators of liberal democracy.
A pooled cross-section of national indicators of liberal democracy.
Collection Mode
  • (1) The SAS transport file was created using the SAS XPORT engine. (2) The codebook is provided as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.

2001-01-05 This collection has undergone routine ICPSR processing. The data are now available in ASCII format, and SAS and SPSS data definition statements have been created for this collection. Funding insitution(s): National Science Foundation (SES-8908361 and SES-9121564).
This study is freely available to ICPSR member institutions via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 2532 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR02532.v1
  • Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra T.. Contextual influences on environmental concerns cross-nationally: A multilevel investigation. Social Science Research.41, (5), 1085-1099.2012.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2012.04.003 (DOI)
  • Pemstein, Daniel, Meserve, Stephen A., Melton, James. Democratic compromise: A latent variable analysis of ten measures of regime type. Political Analysis.18, (4), 426-449.2010.
    • ID: 10.1093/pan/mpq020 (DOI)
  • Weiffen, Brigitte. Liberalizing autocracies in the Gulf region? Reform strategies in the face of a cultural-economic syndrome. World Development.36, (12), 2586-2604.2008.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.01.009 (DOI)
  • Wejnert, Barbara. The effects of growth of democracy and transition to market-based economies on women's well-being. Journal of Consumer Policy.26, (4), 465-493.2003.
    • ID: 10.1023/A:1026376513431 (DOI)
  • Iyall-Smith, Keri E.. Diversity and Liberal Democracy: The Case of Religion. Southern Sociological Society. 2001.
  • King, Gary, Murray, Christopher J.L.. Rethinking Human Security. Political Science Quarterly.116, (4), 585-610.2001.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Bollen, Kenneth A., Paxton, Pamela. Subjective measures of liberal democracy. Comparative Political Studies.33, (1), 58-86.2000.
    • ID: 10.1177/0010414000033001003 (DOI)
  • Boyle, Elizabeth Heger. Is Law the Rule? Using Political Frames to Explain Cross-National Variation in Legal Activity. Social Forces.78, (4), 1195-1226.2000.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Bollen, Kenneth A.. Political rights and political liberties in nations: An evaluation of human rights measures, 1950 to 1984. Human Rights Quarterly.8, (4), 567-591.1986.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Mishler, William, Hildreth, Anne. Legislatures and political stability: An exploratory analysis. Journal of Politics.46, (1), 25-59.1984.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Bollen, Kenneth A. (1999): Cross-National Indicators of Liberal Democracy, 1950-1990. Version 2. Version: v2. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.