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Comparative Study of Electoral Systems, 1996-2001

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • Sapiro, Virginia (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Center for Political Studies)
  • Shively, W. Philips (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Center for Political Studies)
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES) Series
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • National Science Foundation
Free Keywords
democracy; demographic characteristics; electoral systems; national elections; nations; parliamentary elections; political affiliation; political efficacy; political ideologies; political parties; political systems; politicians; presidential elections; public opinion; vote count; voting behavior
  • Abstract

    This study is the first module of an ongoing collaborative program of crossnational research among national election studies designed to advance the understanding of electoral behavior across polities. The data project, carried out in over 50 consolidated and emerging democracies, was coordinated by social scientists from around the world who cooperated to specify the research agenda, the study design, and the micro- and macro-level data that native teams of researchers collected within each polity. This collection currently comprises data from surveys conducted during 1996-2001 in Australia, Belarus, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, Israel, Japan, Korea, Lithuania, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Ukraine, and the United States. The format includes a common questionnaire module and background (demographic) characteristics of respondents, coded to agreed-upon standards. These data have been merged into a single crossnational dataset with a companion supplementary weighted data file. Measures included in the study focus on three main issues. The first topic explored is the impact of electoral institutions, with questions about parliamentary versus presidential systems of government (levels of accountability, responsiveness), the electoral rules on casting/counting of votes (issues of fairness, impact of voting), and political parties (identification, ideological distinction). The second major issue covered is the nature of political and social cleavages and alignments explored by questions such as left-right issue orientation of respondents vs. political parties. Lastly, the collection covers the evaluation of democratic institutions and processes through measures such as efficacy in political parties, elected officials, and respondents' satisfaction with democracy. Additionally, data were collected on voter turnout, voter choice, and respondents' age, sex, education, employment, and income.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Micro-Level Data
    • DS2: Supplementary Weight Data
Temporal Coverage
  • 1996 / 2001
    Time period: 1996--2001
  • 1996 / 2002
    Collection date: 1996--2002
Geographic Coverage
  • Australia
  • Belarus
  • Belgium
  • Canada
  • Chile
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Germany
  • Global
  • Great Britain
  • Hong Kong
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • Israel
  • Japan
  • Lithuania
  • Mexico
  • Netherlands
  • New Zealand
  • Norway
  • Peru
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Russia
  • Slovenia
  • South Korea
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Taiwan
  • Thailand
  • Ukraine
  • United States
Sampled Universe
All age-eligible citizens, or citizens of voting age of collaborating countries.
The data collection is a pooled crossnational sample of age-eligible citizens, yielding 62,409 cases.
Collection Mode
  • Users should check the CSES Web site for additional information about this survey, errata notes, and other materials. This version corresponds to CSES Module 1 Full Release of August 4, 2003.

    The original study title has been changed from 1996-2000 to 1996-2001 to reflect the inclusion of 2001 data from several countries.

    The 1996-2001 data file includes 2002 Portugal data. The 2002 Portugal data are different from the 2002 Portugal data in the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems, 2001-2006 (ICPSR 3808).

    The crossnational dataset integrates data already fully processed by the study staffs of the individual countries, without further processing except for that which was essential for merging the data into the combined file. Where coded data for any deposited variables deviated too much from the coding scheme required by the CSES codebook, data for such variables were excluded.

    For some countries, a machine-readable file for appendix documentation was not deposited or was incomplete. Wherever possible, Secretariat staff incorporated documentary information from other deposited sources, including printed matter such as tables of frequency distributions with assigned code labels.

    Although provision was not made for weight variables in the design of the CSES codebook, many countries deposited one or more weights together with CSES variables. Proper integration of weight variables into the combined CSES file is planned for the future. As a temporary measure, this combined CSES dataset is being released with a mergeable "Supplementary Weight File" that contains respondent ID numbers and the individual weight variables received.

    The codebook for Part 1 of this collection contains characters with diacritical marks used in many European languages, which are unprintable in the original character format being released.

2004-02-24 Data for 2001 have been added to this collection. In addition, some minor codebook and label corrections (usually typographical errors or small improvements) were made. All errata posted on the Web site from July 26, 2002, through August 4, 2003, were applied to the files. Variable "A1007," previously containing "OLD POLITY CODE" data, was replaced with data concerning "SAMPLE COMPONENT." The new use of variable "A1007" for "SAMPLE COMPONENT" allows us to identify regions of countries or other sample components as units of analysis, rather than the elections themselves. "OLD POLITY CODE" was a past CSES identification variable that is now outdated (having been replaced by variable "A1006," "ID COMPONENT - POLITY," which is based on United Nations Statistics Division coding schemes). Funding insitution(s): National Science Foundation (SBR-9317631).
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 2683 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR02683.v1
  • Gingrich, Jane. Visibility, values, and voters: The informational role of the welfare state. Journal of Politics.76, (2), 565-580.2014.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0022381613001540 (DOI)
  • Lefkofridi, Zoe, Giger, Nathalie, Gallego, Aina. Electoral participation in pursuit of policy representation: Ideological congruence and voter turnout. Journal of Elections, Public Opinion, and Parties.2014.
    • ID: 10.1080/17457289.2013.846347 (DOI)
  • Borooah, Vani K., Katos, Anastasios B., Katsouli, Eleni. Inter-country differences in voter satisfaction with the democratic process: A study of world elections. Public Choice.157, (3-4), 569-584.2013.
    • ID: 10.1007/s11127-013-0134-2 (DOI)
  • Jansen, Giedo, Evans, Geoffrey, Graaf, Nan Dirk de. Class voting and Left–Right party positions: A comparative study of 15 Western democracies, 1960–2005. Social Science Research.42, (2), 376-400.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2012.09.007 (DOI)
  • Singh, Shane, Thornton, Judd. Compulsory voting and the dynamics of partisan identification. European Journal of Political Research.52, (2), 188-211.2013.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1475-6765.2012.02071.x (DOI)
  • Anderson, Christopher J., Just, Aida. Partisan legitimacy across generations. Electoral Studies.31, (2), 306-316.2012.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.electstud.2011.11.003 (DOI)
  • Singh, Shane P.. Where do parties live? Electoral institutions, party incentives, and the dimensionality of politics. Social Science Quarterly.93, (4), 950-967.2012.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1540-6237.2012.00843.x (DOI)
  • Dow, Jay K.. Party-system extremism in majoritarian and proportional electoral systems. British Journal of Political Science.41, (2), 341-361.2011.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0007123410000360 (DOI)
  • Drummond, Andrew J.. Assimilation, contrast and voter projections of parties in left-right space: Does the electoral system matter?. Party Politics.17, (6), 711-743.2011.
    • ID: 10.1177/1354068810376781 (DOI)
  • Raymond, Christopher. The continued salience of religious voting in the United States, Germany, and Great Britain. Electoral Studies.30, 125-135.2011.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.electstud.2010.10.001 (DOI)
  • Birch, Sarah. Perceptions of electoral fairness and voter turnout. Comparative Political Studies.43, (12), 1601-1622.2010.
    • ID: 10.1177/0010414010374021 (DOI)
  • Drummond, Andrew J., Lubecki, Jacek. Reconstructing Galicia: Mapping the cultural and civic traditions of the former Austrian Galicia in Poland and Ukraine. Europe-Asia Studies.62, (8), 1311-1338.2010.
    • ID: 10.1080/09668136.2010.504385 (DOI)
  • Golder, Matt, Stramski, Jacek. Ideological congruence and electoral institutions. American Journal of Political Science.54, (1), 90-106.2010.
    • ID: 10.2307/20647973 (DOI)
  • Vowles, Jack. Making a difference? Public perceptions of coalition, single-party, and minority governments. Electoral Studies.29, (3), 370-380.2010.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.electstud.2010.03.006 (DOI)
  • Warwick, Paul V.. Bilateralism or the median mandate? An examination of rival perspectives on democratic governance. European Journal of Political Research.49, (1), 1-24.2010.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1475-6765.2009.01878.x (DOI)
  • de la Calle, Luis, Martinez, Alvaro, Orriols, Lluis. Voting without ideology. Evidence from Spain (1979-2008) . Revista Espanola de Investigaciones Sociologicas.129, 107-129.2010.
  • Bingham Powell, G.. The ideological congruence controversy: The impact of alternative measures, data, and time periods on the effects of election rules. Comparative Political Studies.42, (12), 1475-1497.2009.
    • ID: 10.1177/0010414009332147 (DOI)
  • Brockington, David. It’s about the benefits: Choice environments, ideological proximity and individual participation in 28 democracies. Party Politics.15, (4), 435-454.2009.
    • ID: 10.1177/1354068809334554 (DOI)
  • Warwick, Paul V.. Relative extremism and relative moderation: Strategic party positioning in democratic systems. Political Research Quarterly.62, (2), 276-288.2009.
    • ID: 10.2307/27759867 (DOI)
  • Fisher, Stephen D., Lessard-Phillips, Laurence, Hobolt, Sara B., Curtice, John. Disengaging voters: Do plurality systems discourage the less knowledgeable from voting?. Electoral Studies.27, (1), 89-104.2008.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.electstud.2007.11.001 (DOI)
  • Karp, Jeffrey A., Banducci, Susan A.. Political efficacy and participation in twenty-seven democracies: How electoral systems shape political behaviour. British Journal of Political Science.38, 311-334.2008.
    • ID: 10.2307/27568347 (DOI)
  • Toka, Gabor. Citizen information, election outcomes and good governance. Electoral Studies.27, (1), 31-44.2008.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.electstud.2007.11.006 (DOI)
  • Vowles, Jack. Does globalization affect public perceptions of ‘Who in power can make a difference’? Evidence from 40 countries, 1996–2006. Electoral Studies.27, (1), 63-76.2008.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.electstud.2007.11.003 (DOI)
  • Bernhagen, Patrick, Marsh, Michael. The partisan effects of low turnout: Analyzing vote abstention as a missing data problem. Electoral Studies.26, (3), 548-560.2007.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.electstud.2006.10.002 (DOI)
  • Dalton, Russell J., Weldon, Steven. Partisanship and party system institutionalization. Party Politics.13, (2), 179-196.2007.
    • ID: 10.1177/1354068807073856 (DOI)
  • Karp, Jeffrey A., Banducci, Susan A.. Party mobilization and political participation in new and old democracies. Party Politics.13, (2), 217-234.2007.
    • ID: 10.1177/1354068807073874 (DOI)
  • Mainwaring, Scott, Zoco, Edurne. Political sequences and the stabilization of interparty competition: Electoral volatility in old and new democracies. Party Politics.13, (2), 155-178.2007.
    • ID: 10.1177/1354068807073852 (DOI)
  • McAllister, Ian, Stephen White. Political parties and democratic consolidation in post-communist societies. Party Politics.13, (2), 197-216.2007.
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  • Blais, Andre, Bodet, Marc Andre. Does proportional representation foster closer congruence between citizens and policy makers?. Comparative Political Studies.39, (10), 1243-1262.2006.
    • ID: 10.1177/0010414005284374 (DOI)
  • Farrell, David M., Mcallister, Ian. Voter satisfaction and electoral systems: Does preferential voting in candidate-centred systems make a difference?. European Journal of Political Research.45, (5), 723-749.2006.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1475-6765.2006.00633.x (DOI)
  • Gronlund, Kimmo, Milner, Henry. The determinants of political knowledge in comparative perspective. Scandinavian Political Studies.29, (4), 386-406.2006.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1467-9477.2006.00157.x (DOI)
  • Mainwaring, Scott, Torcal, Mariano. Party system institutionalization and party system theory after the third wave of democratization. Handbook of Party Politics.London, UK: SAGE Publications. 2006.
  • Huber, John D., Kernell, Georgia, Leoni, Eduardo L.. Institutional context, cognitive resources and party attachments across democracies. Political Analysis.13, 365-386.2005.
    • ID: 10.2307/25791823 (DOI)
  • Jusko, Karen Long, Shively, W. Phillips. Applying a two-step strategy to the analysis of cross-national public opinion data. Political Analysis.13, (4), 327-344.2005.
    • ID: 10.1093/pan/mpi030 (DOI)
  • Brockington, David. The paradox of proportional representation: The effect of party systems and coalitions on individuals’ electoral participation. Political Studies.52, (3), 469-490.2004.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1467-9248.2004.00491.x (DOI)
  • Sing, Ming. Origins of anti-partyism in Hong Kong. East Asia.21, (3), 37-57.2004.
    • ID: 10.1007/s12140-004-0022-y (DOI)
  • Klingermann, Hans-Dieter, Wessels, Bernhard. The political consequences of Germany's mixed-member system: Personalization at the grass roots?. Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: The Best of Both Worlds?.New York: Oxford University Press. 2001.
  • Norris, Pippa. The twilight of Westminster? Electoral reform and its consequences. Political Studies.49, (5), 877-900.2001.
    • ID: 10.1111/1467-9248.00345 (DOI)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 12 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Sapiro, Virginia; Shively, W. Philips (1999): Comparative Study of Electoral Systems, 1996-2001. Archival Version. Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES) Series. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.