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Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS): 1997 Sample Survey of Law Enforcement Agencies

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) Series
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Free Keywords
administration; budgets; law enforcement; law enforcement agencies; management; personnel; police departments; statistical data; wages and salaries; workers
  • Abstract

    This survey, the fourth in the Bureau of Justice Statistics' program on Law Enforcement and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS), presents information on law enforcement agencies: state police, county police, special police (state and local), municipal police, and sheriff's departments. Variables include size of the population served by the police or sheriff's department, levels of employment and spending, various functions of the department, average salary levels for uniformed officers, policies and programs, and other matters related to management and personnel.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed consistency checks.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1997
  • 1997-07 / 1998-07
    Collection date: 1997-07--1998-07
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
The universe for the 1997 SSLEA survey consists of agencies listed in the 1996 Directory Survey of Law Enforcement Agencies. The Directory includes all state and local law enforcement agencies that are publicly funded and employ at least one full-time or part-time sworn officer with general arrest powers. Smallest Geographic Unit: United States
The universe file used for sample selection contained 18,778 sheriff, municipal general-purpose police, county general-purpose police, state police, constable's office, tribal police, and special police agencies.
Collection Mode
  • self-enumerated questionnaire

2008-12-04 The study has been updated with the full suite of data formats and the codebook has received xml markups. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics.
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 2700 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR02700.v1
  • Reaves, Brian A.. Local Police Departments, 2013: Equipment and Technology. NCJ 248767, Washington, DC: Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2015.
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  • Eitle, David, Monahan, Susanne. Revisiting the racial threat thesis: The role of police organizational characteristics in predicting race-specific drug arrest rates. Justice Quarterly.26, (3), 528-561.2009.
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  • Holian, Matt. Compstat, community policing and the science of success: A market-based approach to police management. Economic Affairs.27, (4), 23-29.2007.
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  • Lilley, David, Hinduja, Sameer. Police officer performance appraisal and overall satisfaction. Journal of Criminal Justice.35, (2), 137-150.2007.
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  • Roberts, Aki, Roberts, John M., Jr.. The structure of informal communication between police agencies. Policing.30, (1), 93-107.2007.
  • Beckman, Karen A.. Community Policing and Changing Crime Rates: Does What Police Do Matter?. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park. 2006.
  • Chappell, Allison T., MacDonald, John M., Manz, Patrick W.. The Organizational Determinants of Police Arrest Decisions. Crime and Delinquency.52, (2), 287-306.2006.
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    • ID: 10.1177/1098611105281628 (DOI)
  • Roberts, Aki, Roberts, John M., Jr.. Police Innovations and the Structure of Informal Communication Between Police Agencies: Network and LEMAS Data. NCJ 216150, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice. 2006.
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  • Brunet, James R.. Drug Testing in Law Enforcement Agencies: Social Control in the Public Sector. New York, NY: LFB Scholarly Publishing. 2005.
  • Choi, KyuBeom. The Effects of Actual Punishment Levels on Perceptions of Punishment: A Multi-Level Approach. Dissertation, Florida State University. 2005.
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  • Lemmer, Thomas J.. Police Department Reorganization and Effectiveness in Addressing Gang Violence in Chicago. Thesis, Loyola University Chicago. 2005.
  • Schnebly, Stephen M.. Community Variation in the Nature of Crime Reporting. Dissertation, University of Missouri-St. Louis. 2005.
  • Watkins, Charles E., Jr.. The Information Technology Productivity Paradox in Law Enforcement: An Exploratory Study. Dissertation, George Washington University. 2005.
  • Weisburd, David, Lum, Cynthia. The diffusion of computerized crime mapping in policing: Linking research and practice. Police Practice and Research.6, (5), 419-434.2005.
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  • Wilson, Jeremy M.. Determinants of Community Policing: An Open Systems Model of Implementation. Working Paper.NCJ 211975 , Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 2005.
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  • Catalano, Shannan M.. An Examination of the Convergence between Police Recording and Victim Reporting of Serious Violent Crime, 1973-2002. Dissertation, University of Missouri St. Louis. 2004.
  • Meesing, Robert T.. An Exploratory Study Regarding the Effects of Community Policing on Index Crime Clearance Rates in Local Agencies with Investigators. Dissertation, Michigan State University. 2004.
  • Smith, Brad W.. Structural and organizational predictors of homicide by police. Policing.27, (4), 539-557.2004.
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  • Davies, Heather J.. Understanding Variations in Murder Clearance Rates: The Influence of the Political Environment. American University. 2003.
  • Gutierrez, Ricky S.. Social Equity and the Funding of Community Policing. New York, NY: LFB Scholarly Publishing. 2003.
  • Hassell, Kimberly D., Zhao, Jihong "Solomon", Maguire, Edward R.. Structural arrangements in large municipal police organizations: Revisiting Wilson's theory of local political culture. Policing.26, (2), 231-250.2003.
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  • Maguire, Edward R., Shin, Yeunhee, Zhao, Jihong 'Solomon', Hassell, Kimberly D.. Structural change in large police agencies during the 1990s. Policing.26, (2), 251-265.2003.
  • Smith, Brad W.. The impact of police officer diversity on police-caused homicides. Policy Studies Journal.31, (2), 147-162.2003.
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  • Wilson, Jeremy M.. Measurement and association in the structure of municipal police organizations. Policing.26, (2), 276-297.2003.
  • del Carmen, Alejandro, Guevara, Lori. Police officers on two-officer units: A study of attitudinal responses toward a patrol experiment. Policing.26, (1), 144-161.2003.
  • Katz, Charles M., Maguire, Edward R., Roncek, Dennis W.. The creation of specialized police gang units: A macro-level analysis of contingency, social threat and resource dependency explanations. Policing.25, (3), 472-506.2002.
  • MacDonald, John M.. The effectiveness of community policing in reducing urban violence. Crime and Delinquency.48, (4), 592-618.2002.
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  • Wilson, Jeremy M.. Implementation of Community Policing in Large Municipal Police Organizations. Dissertation, Ohio State University. 2002.
  • Hickman, Matthew J., Reaves, Brian A.. Community Policing in Local Police Departments, 1997 and 1999, Special Report. NCJ 184794, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2001.
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  • Goldberg, Andrew L., Reaves, Brian A.. Sheriffs' Departments, 1997. NCJ 173428, Washington, DC: United States Deparment of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2000.
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  • Weitzer, Ronald. Racialized policing: Residents' perceptions in three neighborhoods. Law and Society Review.34, (1), 129-155.2000.
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  • (author unknown). Sheriffs' Departments 1997: Executive Summary. NCJ 179011, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1999.
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  • Reaves, Brian A., Goldberg, Andrew. Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics, 1997: Data for Individual State and Local Agencies with 100 or More Officers. NCJ 171681, United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1999.
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  • Reaves, Brian A., Goldberg, Andrew. Local Police Departments, 1997. NCJ 178934; NCJ 1734, United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1999.
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  • United States Department of Justice. Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics, 1997: Data for Individual State and Local Agencies with 100 or More Officers. Executive Summary.Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1999.
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  • Weitzer, Ronald. Citizens' perceptions of police misconduct: Race and neighborhood context. Justice Quarterly.16, (4), 819-846.1999.
    • ID: 10.1080/07418829900094381 (DOI)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics (1999): Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS): 1997 Sample Survey of Law Enforcement Agencies. Archival Version. Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) Series. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.