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Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), 1994: [United States]

Version
v0
Resource Type
Dataset : administrative records data, clinical data, survey data
Creator
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
1999-11-19
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies
Language
English
Free Keywords
demographic characteristics; drug abuse; drug dependence; drug overdose; drug use; emergencies; emergency services; health behavior; hospitalization; substance abuse
Description
  • Abstract

    The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) survey is designed to capture data on emergency department (ED) episodes that are induced by or related to the use of an illicit, prescription, or over-the-counter drug. For purposes of this collection, a drug "episode" is an ED visit that was induced by or related to the use of an illegal drug or the nonmedical use of a legal drug for patients aged six years and older. A drug "mention" refers to a substance that was mentioned during a drug-related ED episode. Because up to four drugs can be reported for each drug abuse episode, there are more mentions than episodes in the data. Individual persons may also be included more than once in the data. Within each facility participating in DAWN, a designated reporter, usually a member of the emergency department or medical records staff, was responsible for identifying drug-related episodes and recording and submitting data on each case. An episode report was submitted for each patient visiting a DAWN emergency department whose presenting problem(s) was/were related to their own drug use. DAWN produces estimates of drug-related emergency department visits for 50 specific drugs, drug categories, or combinations of drugs, including the following: acetaminophen, alcohol in combination with other drugs, alprazolam, amitriptyline, amphetamines, aspirin, cocaine, codeine, diazepam, diphenhydramine, fluoxetine, heroin/morphine, inhalants/solvents/aerosols, LSD, lorazepam, marijuana/hashish, methadone, methamphetamine, and PCP/PCP in combination with other drugs. The use of alcohol alone is not reported. The route of administration and form of drug used (e.g., powder, tablet, liquid) are included for each drug. Data collected for DAWN also include drug use motive and total drug mentions in the episode, as well as race, age, patient disposition, reason for ED visit, and day of the week, quarter, and year of episode.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed consistency checks.; Created online analysis version with question text.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS1: Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), 1994
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1994
  • Collection date: 1994
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Patients treated during 1994 in the emergency department of nonfederal, short-stay general hospitals that have a 24-hour emergency department. Eligible respondents were those patients who met the following criteria: (1) they were aged 6 years or older, (2) their presenting problem(s) was/were induced by or related to drug use, regardless of when the drug ingestion occurred, (3) the case involved the nonmedical use of a legal drug or any use of an illegal drug, (4) the patient's reason for taking the substance(s) included one of the following: (a) dependence, (b) suicide attempt or gesture, or (c) psychic effects.
Sampling
More than 500 EDs that were part of a scientifically- selected sample of general hospitals in the country provided data for DAWN. The DAWN sample is constructed to produce estimates of substance abuse visits to emergency departments across the nation and to 21 oversampled metropolitan areas. The sample design of DAWN does not permit state-level estimates. Hospitals in the frame were stratified according to size, with hospitals reporting 80,000 or more annual emergency department visits assigned to a single stratum and selected with certainty. Additional strata were defined according to whether the hospital had an organized outpatient department or a chemical/alcohol inpatient unit. The 21 oversampled MSAs include: Atlanta, GA, Baltimore, MD, Boston, MA, Buffalo, NY, Chicago, IL, Dallas, TX, Denver, CO, Detroit, MI, Los Angeles, CA, Miami, FL, Minneapolis, MN, New Orleans, LA, New York, NY, Newark, NJ, Philadelphia, PA, Phoenix, AZ, San Diego, CA, San Francisco, CA, Seattle, WA, St. Louis, MO, and Washington, DC.
Collection Mode
  • hospital medical records

    Because data are abstracted from medical records completed by hospital staff who treat the patients, the accuracy of these reports depends on their careful recording of these conditions. It is also important to recognize that DAWN does not provide a complete picture of problems associated with drug use, but rather focuses on the impact that these problems have on hospital emergency departments in the United States. If a person is admitted to another part of the hospital for treatment, or treated in a physician's office or at a drug treatment center, the episode would not be included in DAWN.

    To protect the privacy of respondents, all variables that could be used to identify individuals have been encrypted or collapsed in the public use file. These modifications should not affect analytic uses of the public use file.

    In January 1994, several DAWN hospital emergency departments in Los Angeles were closed for a period of time due to the Northridge earthquake. In addition, emergency department records in some facilities were destroyed. This may explain the decrease in the total number of drug-related episodes in Los Angeles between the first half of 1993 and the first half of 1994.

    Changes in reporting procedures in 1994 in two national panel hospitals may have caused an increase in the volume of drug-related cases reported there. Because these hospitals reported a large number of methamphetamine cases, part of the estimated 75 percent increase in methamphetamine-related episodes from 1993 to 1994 may be an artifact. However, after removing these two hospitals from the estimation, methamphetamine still showed a 45-percent increase.

    The data were collected and cleaned by Johnson, Bassin, and Shaw, Inc. Westat, Inc. created the weights and analytic files, and the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) created the public use file and codebook.

    For more information, visit the DAWN Web site.

Note
2014-08-13 Edited question text in ddi.xml file.2008-03-04 New files were added. These files included one or more of the following: Stata setup, SAS transport (CPORT), SPSS system, Stata system, SAS supplemental syntax, and Stata supplemental syntax files, and tab-delimited ASCII data file. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies.
Availability
Delivery
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (help@icpsr.umich.edu).
Alternative Identifiers
  • 2756 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR02756.v1
Publications
  • Corman, Hope, Dave, Dhaval M., Reichman, Nancy E., Das, Dhiman. Effects of welfare reform on illicit drug use of adult women. Economic Inquiry.51, (1), 653-674.2013.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1465-7295.2012.00459.x (DOI)
  • Stephens, Everett. Toxicity, narcotics. Emedicine.55, (3), 2009.
    • ID: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/815784-overview (URL)
  • The White House. National Drug Control Strategy: Data Supplement 2009. NCJ 225448, Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy. 2009.
    • ID: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs09/ndcs09_data_supl/09datasupplement.pdf (URL)
  • Arkes, Jeremy, Pacula, Rosalie L., Paddock, Susan M., Caulkins, Jonathan P., Reuter, Petere. Why the DEA STRIDE Data are Still Useful for Understanding Drug Markets. NBER Working Paper No. 14224.Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2008.
    • ID: http://www.nber.org/papers/w14224.pdf?new_window=1 (URL)
  • Botch, Sabra R., Johnson, Robert D.. Drug Usage in Pilots Involved in Aviation Accidents Compared With Drug Usage in the General Population: From 1990 to 2005. FAA Civil Aerospace Medical Institute.DOT/FAA/AM-08/10, Washington, DC: Federal Aviation Administration. 2008.
    • ID: http://www.faa.gov/library/reports/medical/oamtechreports/2000s/media/200810.pdf (URL)
  • McCall, Patricia L., Parker, Karen F., MacDonald, John M.. The dynamic relationship between homicide rates and social, economic, and political factors from 1970 to 2000. Social Science Research.37, (3), 721-735.2008.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2007.09.007 (DOI)
  • The White House. National Drug Control Strategy. Data Supplement 2008.NCJ 221951, Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy. 2008.
    • ID: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs08_data_supl/ndcs_suppl08.pdf (URL)
  • Gorman, Dennis M., Huber, J. Charles, Jr.. Do medical cannabis laws encourage cannabis use?. International Journal of Drug Policy.18, (3), 160-167.2007.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2006.10.001 (DOI)
  • Shamblen, Stephen R., Springer, J. Fred. Improving the sensitivity of needs assessment for substance abuse prevention planning: the measurement of differential severity of consequences for individual substance types. Journal of Drug Education.37, (3), 295-316.2007.
    • ID: 10.2190/DE.37.3.e (DOI)
  • Dasgupta, Nabarun, Kramer, E. Douglas, Zalman, Mary-Ann, Carino, Salvatore, Jr., Smith, Meredith Y., Haddox, J. David, Wright, Curtis, IV. Association between non-medical and prescriptive usage of opioids. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.82, (2), 135-142.2006.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2005.08.019 (DOI)
  • DeSandre, Paul L.. Methamphetamine emergencies. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy .10, (3/4), 2006.
    • ID: 10.1300/J236v10n03_05 (DOI)
  • Reuter, Peter. Drug Use. Gender Issues.23, (3), 65 -2006.
    • ID: 10.1007/BF03186778 (DOI)
  • Boylan, Richard T., Ho, Vivian. Tracking variations in cocaine deaths across U.S. cities. Addiction Research and Theory.12, (5), 461-468.2004.
    • ID: 10.1080/16066350412331298956 (DOI)
  • Dave, Dhaval. The Effects of Cocaine and Heroin Prices on Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits. NBER Working Paper No. 10619.Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2004.
    • ID: http://www.nber.org/papers/w10619.pdf?new_window=1 (URL)
  • Stults, Brian J.. Social Threat and Benign Neglect: A Conflict Perspective on Racial Differences in Arrest. Dissertation, University at Albany, State University of New York. 2003.
  • Kassin, Wendy, Ball, Judy. Club Drugs, 2001 Update. DAWN Report.Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. 2002.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k2/DAWN/clubdrugs2k1.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Emergency Department Trends from the Drug Abuse Warning Network, Final Estimates 1994-2001. Drug Abuse Warning Network Series: D-21.SMA 02-3635, Rockville, MD : United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2002.
    • ID: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data/DAWN/Final2k1EDtrends/text/EDtrend2001v6.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Emergency Department Trends from the Drug Abuse Warning Network, Preliminary Estimates January-June 2002. Drug Abuse Warning Network Series: D-22.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2002.
    • ID: http://dawninfo.samhsa.gov/old_dawn/pubs_94_02/edpubs/2002prelim/files/EDTrendPrelim02Text.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Emergency Department Trends from the Drug Abuse Warning Network, preliminary estimates January-June 2001 with revised estimates 1994-2000. Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2002.
  • (author unknown). Ecstasy surveillance in the United States: The time to monitor juvenile arrestees is now. Journal of Offender Monitoring.14, (3-4), 23-24.2001.
  • Caulkins, J.P.. Drug prices and emergency department mentions for cocaine and heroin. American Journal of Public Health.91, (9), 1446-1448.2001.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.91.9.1446 (DOI)
  • Leikin, Jerrold B., Morris, Ralph W., Warren, Marshall, Erickson, Timothy. Trends in a decade of drug abuse presentation to an inner city ED. American Journal of Emergency Medicine.19, (1), 37-39.2001.
  • Ball, Judy, Korper, Samuel, Woodward, Albert. Reporting drug abuse in the emergency department. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association.284, (5), 564 -2000.
    • ID: 10.1001/jama.284.5.564 (DOI)
  • Joranson, D.E., Ryan, K.M., Gilson, A.M., Dahl, J.L.. Trends in medical use and abuse of opioid analgesics. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association.283, (13), 1710-1714.2000.
    • ID: 10.1001/jama.283.13.1710 (DOI)
  • Wermuth, Laurie. Methamphetamine use: Hazards and social influences. Journal of Drug Education.30, (4), 423-433.2000.
    • ID: 10.2190/GMH7-3FWX-1AC1-RWXP (DOI)
  • Blumstein, Alfred, Beck, Allen J.. Population growth in U. S. prisons, 1980-1996. Prisons. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research..Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 1999.
  • Office of Applied Studies. Year-End 1998 Emergency Department Data from the Drug Abuse Warning. Network. SMA 00-3376, Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services. 1999.
    • ID: http://nebraskaprevlink.ne.gov/clearinghouse/catalog/research_statistics/dawn_reports/dawn_yearend19 (URL)
  • Rosenfeld, Richard, Decker, Scott H.. Are arrest statistics a valid measure of illicit drug use? The relationship between criminal justice and public health indicators of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana use. Justice Quarterly.16, (3), 685-699.1999.
    • ID: 10.1080/07418829900094311 (DOI)
  • (author unknown). Drug Abuse Warning Network Sample Design and Estimation Procedures. Technical Report.(SMA) 98-3178, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 1997.
  • Boggess, Scott, Bound, John. Did Criminal Activity Increase during the 1980s? Comparisons across Data Sources. Social Science Quarterly.78, (3), 725-739.1997.
  • (author unknown). Annual Emergency Department Data, 1994: Data from the Drug Abuse Warning Network. (SMA) 96-3104, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 1996.
  • (author unknown). Drug-related ER visits increase. Public Health Reports.111, 386-387.1996.
  • Anonymous. Drug-related ER visits increase. Public Health Reports.111, (5), 386 -1996.
  • Anonymous. Field seeks opportunity out of Household Survey numbers. Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly.8, (34), 3 -1996.
  • McCaig, Linda F.. Historical Estimates from the Drug Abuse Warning Network: 1978-94 Estimates of Drug-related Emergency Department Episodes. Advance Report.16, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 1996.
  • Mieczkowski, Thomas M.. The prevalence of drug use in the United States. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research.Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 1996.
  • Stinson, F., Gruberg, R., Glancy, B., Hassan, S.. Annual emergency department data: 1994. Data from the Drug Abuse Warning Network. Statistical Series, Series I.14-A, Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. 1996.
  • (author unknown). Increasing morbidity and mortality associated with abuse of methamphetamine--United States, 1991-1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.44, (47), 882-886.1995.
    • ID: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00039666.htm (URL)
  • Harrison, L.D.. Trends and patterns of illicit drug use in the USA: Implications for policy. International Journal of Drug Policy.6, (2), 113-127.1995.
  • Blanc, Paul D., Jones, Matthew R., Olson, Kent R.. Surveillance of poisoning and drug overdose through hospital discharge coding, poison control center reporting, and the Drug Abuse Warning Network. American Journal of Emergency Medicine.11, (1), 14-19.1993.
  • Swisher, J.D., Hu, T.W.. A review of the reliability and validity of the Drug Abuse Warning Network. International Journal of the Addictions.19, (1), 57-77.1984.
  • Hinkley, S.W.. Drug Abuse Warning Network. Archives of General Psychiatry.38, (2), 233 -1981.
    • ID: 10.1001/archpsyc.1981.01780270119020 (DOI)
  • Person, P.H., Jr.. The Drug Abuse Warning Network: A statistical perspective. Public Health Reports.91, (5), 395-402.1976.
  • Murphy, J.B.. Project DAWN: The Nation's Drug Abuse Warning Network. Hospital Formulary.10, (8), 390-395.1975.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 8 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies (1999): Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), 1994: [United States]. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02756