My da|ra Login

Detailed view

metadata language: English

Gambling Impact and Behavior Study, 1997-1999: [United States]

Resource Type
Dataset : administrative records data, medical records, survey data
  • National Gambling Impact Study Commission
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • National Gambling Impact Study Commission
Free Keywords
attitudes; casinos; demographic characteristics; economic indicators; gambling; human behavior; social indicators
  • Abstract

    The Gambling Impact and Behavior Study investigates the gambling behavior and attitudes of adults and youth in America, and also estimates the effects of gambling facilities on a variety of local economic and social indicators. Respondents were randomly selected by a national random-digit dial (RDD) through a stratified design by state lottery status and distances to major casino. The study includes three independent, unlinkable data files. The adult and youth questionnaire (Parts 1 and 2) covered areas such as demographic information, geographic region, gambling behavior and attitudes, motivations for gambling, gambling history, a problem-gambling diagnostic assessment, gambling treatment experience, family/marital status and issues, income and financial information, criminal activity, mental and general health, and substance use. Areas of substance abuse examined were the use of alcohol, marijuana, hashish, cocaine, crack, methamphetamine, stimulants, tranquilizers, amphetamines, and speed. The Community Database (Part 3) included the following: geographic locators (latitude, longitude), availability of gaming facilities, gaming spending estimates, employment patterns by industry, unemployment, bankruptcy, personal income, private and public earnings, government expenditures, income maintenance/AFDC, and vital statistics.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Created online analysis version with question text.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Adult Survey
    • DS2: Youth Survey
    • DS3: Community Database, 1980-1996
Temporal Coverage
  • 1997 / 1999
    Time period: 1997--1999
  • 1998 / 1999
    Collection date: 1998--1999
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
The universe consists of the civilian household population of the United States aged 16 and older. The telephone subuniverse consisted of those living in households with at least one working telephone line. The universe for the community database is biased toward smaller census designated places with populations of 10,000 or more.
The sample for the adult telephone interviews was derived using a national random-digit dial (RDD) design stratified by state lottery status, and distances to a major casino. The distribution of age and sex of the respondent was controlled using the Troldahl-Carter-Bryant method. For the adult patron survey, a random sample of gambling facilities was drawn from two western states, three Mississippi River states, and three northeastern states. An average of 25 interviews per facility at 21 facilities was achieved. The youth sample was drawn from two lists of telephone numbers: List 1 consisted of 5,000 targeted households with youths aged 12-17, while List 2 consisted of 32,000 RDD numbers targeted at all households. The youth sample was also stratified by state lottery status. The community database consisted of 100 communities, which were selected using a simple random sampling without replacement procedure, from among "designated places" as defined by the United States Census Bureau, with populations of 10,000 or more. The community database contains information on the years 1980-1996. The community sample was stratified by distance to major casino and presence of legal gambling.
Collection Mode
  • Data were collected and prepared for release by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago.

    Three survey methodologies were used for the adult sample. Telephone interviews were conducted for all but 14 respondents who chose to participate via mail-in questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted for adult patrons of gambling facilities. The in-person and mail-in questionnaires contained most, but not all, of the questions from the telephone interview.

    The youth questionnaire is identical to the telephone survey administered to adults with one exception. Section D (the Diagnostic Screen for gambling disorders) was administered to all youths who reported any lifetime gambling behavior, rather than, as with adults, only that subset of gamblers who reported dollar losses above certain limits.

    The data for the community database includes two variables for latitude and longitude (INTPTLAT and INTPTLNG) which will produce a warning when used in SPSS due to their lengths.

    In reporting on gambling activities, respondents were asked to include gambling within the United States, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, and to exclude gambling in other territories, on ships, cruises, or ferries, as well as other venues on international waters.

2007-08-28 Stata setup, Stata system, and Stata supplemental files have been added. This process affected some column locations, as a result, codebooks were updated to reflect correct new column locations. Also four variables were recoded on part number 3 to remove non-integer value labels so that Stata system files could be produced.2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions. Funding insitution(s): National Gambling Impact Study Commission.
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 2778 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR02778.v1
  • Bol, Thijs, Lancee, Bram, Steijn, Sander. Income inequality and gambling: A panel study in the United States (1980-1997). Sociological Spectrum.34, (1), 61-75.2014.
    • ID: 10.1080/02732173.2014.857196 (DOI)
  • Jacobs, Adam. The System of Gambling: Relational Arguments for the Uneven Growth of Gambling. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison. 2014.
  • Garrick, Irene R.. Gambling Motivation and Psychosocial Outcomes in Older Adults: A Multi-Groups Analysis of the Impact of Age, Gender and Type of Gambling. Dissertation, University of Rochester. 2013.
  • Mizerski, Richard, Mizerski, Katherine, Lam, Desmond, Lee, Alvin. Gamblers' habit. Journal of Business Research.66, (9), 1605-1611.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2012.12.004 (DOI)
  • Petry, Nancy M., Blanco, Carlos, Stinchfield, Randy, Volberg, Rachel. An empirical evaluation of proposed changes for gambling diagnosis in the DSM-5. Addiction.108, (3), 575-581.2013.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.04087.x (DOI)
  • Guillén, Mauro F., Garvía, Roberto, Santana, Andrés. Embedded play: Economic and social motivations for sharing lottery tickets. European Sociological Review.28, (3), 344-354.2012.
    • ID: 10.1093/esr/jcq068 (DOI)
  • Franco, Christine A., Maciejewski, Paul K., Potenza, Marc N.. Past-year recreational gambling in a nationally representative sample: Correlates of casino, non-casino, and both casino/non-casino gambling. Psychiatry Research.188, (2), 269-275.2011.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.psychres.2011.04.008 (DOI)
  • Hong, Song-Iee, Sacco, Paul, Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.. An empirical typology of lifetime and current gambling behaviors: Association with health status of older adults. Aging and Mental Health.13, (2), 265-273.2009.
    • ID: 10.1080/13607860802459849 (DOI)
  • Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. Gambling Behavior in the United States: A Data-Driven Learning Guide. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. 2009.
    • ID: 10.3886/gambling (DOI)
  • Liu, Timothy, Maciejewski, Paul K., Potenza, Marc N.. The relationship between recreational gambling and substance abuse/dependence: Data from a nationally representative sample. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.100, (1-2), 164-168.2009.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.09.011 (DOI)
  • Coogle, C., Hong, S.. Age differences in alcohol use, health status, and gambling type as predictors of risk among a national sample of gamblers. Gerontologist.48, 1302008.
  • Hill, Anthony James. Psycho-social Correlates and Predictors of Adolescent Gambling Behavior. Dissertation, Howard University. 2008.
  • Barry, Declan T., Maciejewski, Paul K., Desai, Rani A., Potenza, Marc N.. Income differences and recreational gambling. Journal of Addiction Medicine.1, (3), 145-153.2007.
    • ID: 10.1097/ADM.0b013e318125088f (DOI)
  • Duhig, Amy M., Maciejewski, Paul K., Desai, Rani A., Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra, Potenza, Marc N.. Characteristics of adolescent past-year gamblers and non-gamblers in relation to alcohol drinking. Addictive Behaviors.32, (1), 80 -2007.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2006.03.021 (DOI)
  • Desai, Rani A., Maciejewski, Paul K., Pantalon, Michael V., Potenza, Marc N.. Gender differences among recreational gamblers: Association with the frequency of alcohol use. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors.20, (2), 145-153.2006.
    • ID: 10.1037/0893-164X.20.2.145 (DOI)
  • Gerstein, Dean R.. U.S. National Gambling Impact and Behavior Study. 5th Annual Alberta Conference on Gambling Research.Banff, Alberta. 2006.
  • Hersen, Michel, Thomas, Jay C.. Comprehensive Handbook of Personality and Psychopathology. Volume 2: Adult Psychopathology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. 2006.
  • Potenza, Marc N., Maciejewski, Paul K., Mazure, Carolyn M.. A gender-based examination of past-year recreational gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies.22, (1), 41 -2006.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10899-005-9002-4 (DOI)
  • Slutske, Wendy S.. Natural recovery and treatment-seeking in pathological gambling: Results of two U.S. national surveys. American Journal of Psychiatry.163, (2), 297 -2006.
    • ID: 10.1176/appi.ajp.163.2.297 (DOI)
  • Desai, Rani A., Maciejewski, Paul K., Pantalon, Michael V., Potenza, Marc N.. Gender differences in adolescent gambling. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry.17, (4), 249-258.2005.
    • ID: 10.1080/10401230500295636 (DOI)
  • Kerber, Cindy Sullivan. Defining 'health correlates' in recreational gambling: Comment. American Journal of Psychiatry.162, (6), 1227 -2005.
    • ID: 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.6.1227 (DOI)
  • Zimmerman, Jason. Consumer expectations and the demand for legal gambling. Journal of Economics (MVEA).31, (1), 41-54.2005.
  • D'Agati, Marina. Gambling and modernity: A sociological approach. Rassegna Italiana di Sociologia.45, (1), 79-102.2004.
  • Desai, Rani A., Maciejewski, Paul K., Dausey, David J., Caldarone, Barbara J., Potenza, Marc N.. Health correlates of recreational gambling in older adults. American Journal of Psychiatry.161, (9), 1672-1679.2004.
    • ID: 10.1176/appi.ajp.161.9.1672 (DOI)
  • Lynch, Wendy J., Maciejewski, Paul K., Potenza, Marc N.. Psychiatric correlates of gambling in adolescents and young adults grouped by age at gambling onset. Archives of General Psychiatry.61, (11), 1116-1122.2004.
    • ID: 10.1001/archpsyc.61.11.1116 (DOI)
  • Welte, John W., Barnes, Grace M., Wieczorek, William R., Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O., Parker, John C.. Risk factors for pathological gambling. Addictive Behaviors.29, (2), 323-335.2004.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2003.08.007 (DOI)
  • Nower, Lia. Pathological gamblers in the workplace: A primer for employers. Employee Assistance Quarterly.18, (4), 55-72.2003.
    • ID: 10.1300/J022v18n04_03 (DOI)
  • Toce-Gerstein, Marianna, Gerstein, Dean R., Volberg, Rachel A.. A hierarchy of gambling disorders in the community. Addiction.98, (12), 1661-1672.2003.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2003.00545.x (DOI)
  • Zimmerman, Jason. Casino gambling as an income-based leisure activity: Evidence from the Gambling Impact and Behavior Study. Journal of Business and Economics Research.1, (12), 49-58.2003.
  • (author unknown). The Gambling Impact and Behavior Study: Part 1. The WAGER.Harvard Medical School, Division on Addictions, . 2001.
    • ID: (URL)
  • (author unknown). The Gambling Impact and Behavior Study: Part 2. The WAGER.Harvard Medical School, Division on Addictions, . 2001.
    • ID: (URL)
  • (author unknown). The Gambling Impact and Behavior Study: Part 3. The WAGER.Harvard Medical School, Division on Addictions, . 2001.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Potenza, Marc N., Kosten, Thomas R., Rounsaville, Bruce J.. Pathological gambling. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association.286, (2), 141-144.2001.
    • ID: 10.1001/jama.286.2.141 (DOI)
  • Gerstein, Dean, Hoffmann, John, Larison, Cindy, Engelman, Laszlo, Murphy, Sally, Palmer, Amanda, Chuchro, Lucian, Toce, Marianna, Johnson, Robert, Buie, Tracy, Hill, Mary Ann, Volberg, Rachel, Harwood, Henrick, Tucker, Adam, Christiansen, Eugene, Cummings. Gambling Impact and Behavior Study: Report to the National Gambling Impact Study Commisssion. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago, National Opinion Reserach Center. 1999.
  • Gerstein, Dean, Toce, Marianna, Hoffmann, John, Palmer, Amanda, Nichols, Bronwyn, Johnson, Robert, Engelman, Laszlo, Wolter, Kirk, Bregianes, Angie, Farinella, Nancy, Buie, Tracy, Gilbert, Cheryl. Gambling Impact and Behavior Study. Appendix B: Methodology for the Random-Digit Dial and Patron Surveys and the Community Database. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center (NORC). 1999.
    • ID: (URL)
  • National Gambling Impact Study Commission. National Gambling Impact Study Commission: Final Report. Washington, DC: National Gambling Impact Study Commission. 1999.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Volberg, Rachel, Harwood, Henrick, Tucker, Adam, Christiansen, Eugene, Cummings, Will, Sinclair, Sebastian. Gambling Behavior and Impact Study: Report to the National Gambling Impact Study Commission. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center. 1999.
    • ID: (URL)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 8 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

National Gambling Impact Study Commission (2002): Gambling Impact and Behavior Study, 1997-1999: [United States]. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.