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National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1998

Version
v4
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
Creator
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies
Other Title
  • Version 4 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series
Publication Date
2000-06-21
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies
Language
English
Free Keywords
alcohol; alcohol abuse; alcohol consumption; amphetamines; barbiturates; cocaine; demographic characteristics; drug abuse; drug use; drugs; hallucinogens; health care; health insurance; heroin; households; inhalants; marijuana; mental health; mental health services; methamphetamine; prescription drugs; sedatives; smoking; stimulants; substance abuse; substance abuse treatment; tobacco use; tranquilizers; youths
Description
  • Abstract

    The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates. Information is provided on the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among members of United States households aged 12 and older. Questions include age at first use as well as lifetime, annual, and past-month usage for the following drug classes: marijuana, cocaine (and crack), hallucinogens, heroin, inhalants, alcohol, tobacco, and nonmedical use of prescription drugs, including psychotherapeutics. Respondents were also asked about personal and family income sources and amounts, substance abuse treatment history, illegal activities, problems resulting from the use of drugs, need for treatment for drug or alcohol use, criminal record, and needle-sharing. Questions on mental health and access to care, which were introduced in the 1994-B questionnaire (see NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG ABUSE, 1994 [ICPSR 6949]), were retained in this administration of the survey. Also retained was the section on risk/availability of drugs that was reintroduced in 1996, and sections on driving behavior and personal behavior were added (see NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG ABUSE, 1996 [ICPSR 2391]). The 1997 questionnaire (NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG ABUSE, 1997 [ICPSR 2755]) introduced new items that the 1998 NHSDA continued on cigar smoking, people who were present when respondents used marijuana or cocaine for the first time (if applicable), reasons for using these two drugs the first time, reasons for using these two drugs in the past year, reasons for discontinuing use of these two drugs (for lifetime but not past-year users), and reasons respondents never used these two drugs. Both the 1997 and 1998 NHSDAs had a series of questions that were asked only of respondents aged 12 to 17. These items covered a variety of topics that may be associated with substance use and related behaviors, such as exposure to substance abuse prevention and education programs, gang involvement, relationship with parents, and substance use by friends. Demographic data include gender, race, age, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, job status, income level, veteran status, and current household composition.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed consistency checks.; Created online analysis version with question text.; Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Response Rates: The study yielded an 85.4 percent completion rate for screening sample households and 93.0 percent for screening eligible households. The interview response rates for the three racial/ethnic groups were: 74.1 percent for whites/others, 79.7 percent for Blacks, and 80.5 percent for Hispanics. The overall unweighted interview response rate was 77 percent. A completed interview had to contain, at a minimum, data on the recency of use of marijuana, cocaine, and alcohol.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS1: National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1998
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1998
  • Collection date: 1998
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
The civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States aged 12 and older, including residents of noninstitutional group quarters such as college dormitories, group homes, shelters, rooming houses, and civilians dwelling on military installations.
Sampling
Multistage area probability sample design involving five selection stages: (1) primary sampling unit (PSU) areas (e.g., counties), (2) subareas within primary areas (e.g., blocks or block groups), (3) listing units within subareas, (4) age domains within sampled listing units, and (5) eligible individuals within sampled age domains. The 1998 NHSDA used the same 115 PSUs selected for the 1995 through 1997 NHSDAs, 6 supplemental PSUs from Arizona and California, and an additional 16 noncertainty PSUs from 13 purposely selected states. The 115 PSUs were selected to represent the nation's total eligible population, including areas of high Hispanic concentration. These PSUs were defined as metropolitan areas, counties, groups of counties, Census tracts, and independent cities. Of the 115 PSUs, 43 were selected with certainty and 72 were randomly selected with probability proportional to size (PPS). The national sample was supplemented by a PPS selection of four noncertainty PSUs from Arizona plus two noncertainty PSUs from California. The additional 16 noncertainty PSUs were added in States with a small sample size to increase the reliability of estimates. Because the national sample provided representation for certainty PSUs in each state, no additional certainty PSUs were added to either sample. The 1998 NHSDA used all available segments that had adequate listing units from the 1997 NHSDA. Only 24 percent of the 1998 sample, or 640 segments, consisted of a new segment sample selected for the 1998 NHSDA. The remaining 76 percent, or 2,030 segments, overlapped with the 1997 survey year. The five age groups were: ages 12-17, 18-25, 26-34, 35-49, and 50 and older. The three race/ethnic groups were: whites/others, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanics. Blacks and Hispanics were oversampled in the 115 PSUs that comprised the national study component. There was no oversampling of Hispanics in the Arizona/California supplement because each state's Hispanic allocation in the national study component was large enough to satisfy state-level precision requirements. Consequently, the three racial/ethnic groups were sampled in the supplement so that the combined national study and supplemental samples would result in a proportionally allocated sample.
Collection Mode
  • computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI), self-enumerated questionnaire

    Data were collected and prepared for release by Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse questionnaire and estimation methodology changed with the implementation of the 1994-B survey. Therefore, estimates produced from the 1998 survey are not comparable to those produced from the 1994-A and earlier surveys.

    This version of the 1998 NHSDA public release file does not contain data collected on the Parenting Experiences answer sheet (#21) or the questionnaire roster (QD-47) contained in the "Non-Core" Demographics section, nor does this file include various recoded variables that are typically created from the roster data and have been included in past public release files. All the necessary processing of these data and weight calculations for use of these data had not been completed by the data producers at the time of the data deposit. The data producers anticipate release at a later date of an updated version of the 1998 NHSDA public use file, containing additional questionnaire data, variables derived using these data, and additional weights.

    For selected variables, statistical imputation was performed following logical imputation to replace missing responses. These variables are identified in the codebook as "...LOGICALLY IMPUTED" and "...imputed" for the logical procedure or by the designation "IMPUTATION-REVISED" in the variable label when the statistical procedure was also performed. The names of statistically imputed variables begin with the letters "IR". For each imputation-revised variable there is a corresponding imputation indicator variable that indicates whether a case's value on the variable resulted from an interview response or was imputed by the hot-deck technique. Hot-deck imputation is described in the codebook.

    The "basic sampling weights" are equal to the inverse of the probabilities of selection of sample respondents. To obtain "final NHSDA weights," the basic weights were adjusted to take into account dwelling unit-level and individual-level nonresponse and then further adjusted to ensure consistency with intercensal population projections from the United States Bureau of the Census.

    To protect the privacy of respondents, all variables that could be used to identify individuals have been encrypted or collapsed in the public use file. These modifications should not affect analytic uses of the public use file.

    Users who wish to replicate results published in the NHSDA Main Findings Report or other SAMHSA reports should use the 1998 NHSDA imputed data for prevalence estimates rather than raw data from the questionnaire or drug answer sheets.

    For some drugs that have multiple names, questions regarding the use of that drug may be asked for each distinct name. For example, even though methamphetamine, methedrine and desoxyn are the same drug, their use was measured in three separate variables.

Note
2013-05-06 Data collection instrument released.2008-04-25 New files were added. These files included one or more of the following: Stata setup, SAS transport (CPORT), SPSS system, Stata system, SAS supplemental syntax, and Stata supplemental syntax files, and tab-delimited ASCII data file.2000-08-04 Erroneous codes for missing values were deleted for the variable IRAGE2 in the SAS and SPSS setup files. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies (283-97-9007).
Availability
Download
This study is freely available to the general public via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 2934 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR02934.v3
Publications
  • Rough, Kathryn, Tassiopoulos, Katherine, Kacanek, Deborah, Griner, Raymond, Yogev, Ram, Rich, Kenneth, Seage, George, III. Dramatic decline in substance use by HIV-infected pregnant women in the United States from 1990 to 2012. AIDS.29, 117-123.2015.
    • ID: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000503 (DOI)
  • Salter, Howard L.. The Outcomes Following the Implimentation of the Brownsville Agreement and the Merida Initiative. Thesis, American Public University. 2015.
  • Prue, Bob. Prevalence of reported peyote use 1985-2010 effects of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1994. American Journal on Addictions.23, (2), 156-161.2014.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1521-0391.2013.12083.x (DOI)
  • Corman, Hope, Dave, Dhaval M., Reichman, Nancy E., Das, Dhiman. Effects of welfare reform on illicit drug use of adult women. Economic Inquiry.51, (1), 653-674.2013.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1465-7295.2012.00459.x (DOI)
  • Keyes, Katherine M., Miech, Richard. Age, period, and cohort effects in heavy episodic drinking in the US from 1985 to 2009. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.132, (1-2), 140-148.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.01.019 (DOI)
  • Miech, Richard A., London, Andrew S., Wilmoth, Janet M., Koester, Stephen. The effects of the military's antidrug policies over the life course: The case of past-year hallucinogen use. Substance Use and Misuse.48, (10), 837-853.2013.
    • ID: 10.3109/10826084.2013.800120 (DOI)
  • Miech, Richard, Bohnert, Amy, Heard, Kennon, Boardman, Jason. Increasing use of nonmedical analgesics among younger cohorts in the United States: A birth cohort effect. Journal of Adolescent Health.52, (1), 35-41.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.07.016 (DOI)
  • Nielsen, Alexandra, Wakeland, Wayne, Schmidt, Teresa. Simulating health policy interventions to reduce nonmedical use of pharmaceutical opioids. 141st APHA Annual Meeting and Expo.Boston, MA. 2013.
  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Addressing the Specific Behavioral Health Needs of Men. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 56.(SMA) 13-4736, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2013.
    • ID: http://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content//SMA14-4736/SMA14-4736.pdf (URL)
  • Chapman, Shawna L. Carroll, Wu, Li-Tzy. Substance abuse among individuals with intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities.33, (4), 1147-1156.2012.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.ridd.2012.02.009 (DOI)
  • Chen, Xinguang, Lin, Feng. Estimating transitional probabilities with cross-sectional data to assess smoking behavior progression: A validation analysis. Journal of Biometrics and Biostatistics.2012.
    • ID: 10.4172/2155-6180.S1-004 (DOI)
  • Manchikanti, L., Helm, S., II, Fellows, B., Janata, J.W., Pampati, V., Grider, J.S., Boswell, M.V.. Opioid epidemic in the United States. Pain Physician.15, (3S), ES9-ES38.2012.
  • Miech, Richard, Koester, Stephen. Trends in U.S., past-year marijuana use from 1985 to 2009: An age-period-cohort analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.124, (3), 259-267.2012.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.01.020 (DOI)
  • Nguyen, Holly, Reuter, Peter. How risky is marijuana possession? Considering the role of age, race, and gender. Crime and Delinquency.58, (6), 879-910.2012.
    • ID: 10.1177/0011128712461122 (DOI)
  • Paddock, Susan M., Kilmer, Beau, Caulkins, Jonathan P., Booth, Marika J., Paculam, Rosalie L.. An epidemiological model for examining marijuana use over the life course. Epidemiology Research International.2012.
    • ID: 10.1155/2012/520894 (DOI)
  • Chen, Chiung M., Yi, Hsiao-ye, Williams, Gerald D., Faden, Vivian B.. Trends in Underage Drinking in the United States, 1991-2009. Washington, DC: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 2011.
    • ID: http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/surveillance91/Underage09.pdf (URL)
  • Chen, Xinguang, Lin, Feng, Stanton, Bonita, Zhang, Xun. APC modeling of smoking prevalence among US adolescents and young adults. American Journal of Health Behavior.35, (4), 416-427.2011.
    • ID: 10.5993/AJHB.35.4.4 (DOI)
  • Corman, Hope, Dave, Dhaval M., Reichman, Nancy E., Das, Dhiman. Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use of Adult Women. NBER Working Paper No. 16072.Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2010.
  • Manchikanti, Laxmaiah, Fellows, Bert, Ailinani, Hary, Pampati, Vidyasagar. Therapeutic use, abuse, and nonmedical use of opioids: A ten-year perspective. Pain Physician.13, (5), 401-435.2010.
  • Chen, Chiung M., Yi, Hsiao-ye, Faden, Vivian B.. Trends in Underage Drinking in the U.S., 1991-2007. Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System Surveillance Reports #86.Washington, DC: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 2009.
  • Grucza, Richard A., Norberg, Karen E., Bierut, Laura J.. Binge drinking among youths and young adults in the United States: 1979-2006. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.48, (7), 692-702.2009.
    • ID: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181a2b32f (DOI)
  • Rodu, B., Cole, P.. Smoking prevalence: A comparison of two American surveys. Public Health.123, (9), 598-601.2009.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.puhe.2009.07.014 (DOI)
  • The White House. National Drug Control Strategy: Data Supplement 2009. NCJ 225448, Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy. 2009.
    • ID: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs09/ndcs09_data_supl/09datasupplement.pdf (URL)
  • Friedman, Samuel R., Tempalski, Barbara, Cooper, Hannah, Lieb, Spencer, Brady, Joanne, Flom, Peter L., Friedman, Risa, Gostnell, Karla, Jarlais, Don C. Des. Metropolitan area characteristics, injection drug use and HIV among injectors. Geography and Drug Addiction.Dordrecht: Springer. 2008.
  • Maxwell, Jane Carlisle. Are we becoming more alike? Comparison of substance use in Australia and the United States as seen in the 1995, 1998, 2001, and 2004 National Household Surveys. Drug and Alcohol Review.27, (5), 473-481.2008.
    • ID: 10.1080/09595230802090055 (DOI)
  • Wisniewski, Angela M., Purdy, Christopher H., Blondell, Richard D.. The epidemiologic association between opioid prescribing, non-medical use, and emergency department visits. Journal of Addictive Diseases.27, (1), 1-11.2008.
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  • Harder, Valerie S., Chilcoat, Howard D.. Cocaine use and educational achievement: Understanding a changing association over the past 2 decades. American Journal of Public Health.97, (10), 1790-1793.2007.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2006.091108 (DOI)
  • Amadio, Dean M.. Internalized heterosexism, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems among lesbians and gay men. Addictive Behaviors.31, (7), 1153-1162.2006.
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  • Faden, Vivian B.. Trends in initiation of alcohol use in the United States 1975 to 2003 . Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.30, (6), 1011-1022.2006.
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  • Pollack, Harold A., Reuter, Peter. Welfare receipt and substance-abuse treatment among low-income mothers: The impact of welfare reform. American Journal of Public Health.96, (11), 2024 -2006.
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  • Sloboda, Zili. Chapter 12: Forging a relationship between drug abuse epidemiology and drug abuse prevention. Handbook of Drug Abuse Prevention: Theory, Science, and Practice.New York: Springer. 2006.
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  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of Methodological Studies,1971-2005. Methodology Series M-6.SMA 06-4146, Rockville, MD: Office of Applied Studies. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/methodsHY/NSmethods.pdf (URL)
  • Friedman, Samuel R., Lieb, Spencer, Tempalski, Barbara, Cooper, Hannah, Keem, Marie, Friedman, Risa, Flom, Peter L.. HIV among injection drug users in large US metropolitan areas, 1998. Journal of Urban Health.82, 434-445.2005.
    • ID: 10.1093/jurban/jti088 (DOI)
  • Golub, Andrew, Johnson, Bruce D., Dunlap, Eloise. The growth in marijuana use among American youths during the 1990s and the extent of blunt smoking. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse.4, (3-4), 1-21.2005.
    • ID: 10.1300/J233v04n03_01 (DOI)
  • Office of National Drug Control Policy. The National Drug Control Strategy: Data Supplement. NCJ 213692, Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President of the United States. 2005.
    • ID: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs06_data_supl/ (URL)
  • Chen, Chuan-Yu, Anthony, James C.. Epidemiological estimates of risk in the process of becoming dependent upon cocaine: cocaine hydrochloride powder versus crack cocaine. Psychopharmacologia.172, (1), 78-86.2004.
    • ID: 10.1007/s00213-003-1624-6 (DOI)
  • Faden, Vivian B., Fay, Michael P.. Trends in drinking among Americans age 18 and younger: 1975-2002. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.28, (9), 1388-1395.2004.
    • ID: 10.1097/01.ALC.0000139820.04539.BD (DOI)
  • French, Michael T., Roebuck, M. Christopher, Alexandre, Pierre Kebreau. To test or not to test: Do workplace drug testing programs discourage employee drug use?. Social Science Research.33, (1), 45-63.2004.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0049-089X(03)00038-3 (DOI)
  • Friedman, Samuel R., Tempalski, Barbara, Cooper, Hannah, Perlis, Theresa, Keem, Marie, Friedman, Risa, Flom, Peter L.. Estimating numbers of IDUs in metropolitan areas for structural analyses of community vulnerability and for assessing relative degrees of service provision for IDUs. Journal of Urban Health.81, 377-400.2004.
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  • Roebuck, M. Christopher, French, Michael T., Dennis, Michael L.. Adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Economics of Education Review.23, (2), 133-141.2004.
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  • Wu, Li-Tzy, Pilowsky, D., Wechsberg, W.M., Schlenger, W.E.. Injection drug use among stimulant users in a national sample. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.30, (1), 61-83.2004.
    • ID: 10.1081/ADA-120029866 (DOI)
  • Wu, Li-Tzy, Schlenger, William E.. Private Health Insurance Coverage for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services, 1995 to 1998. Psychiatric Services.55, (2), 180-182.2004.
    • ID: 10.1176/appi.ps.55.2.180 (DOI)
  • Chen, Chuan-Yu, Anthony, James C.. Possible age-associated bias in reporting of clinical features of drug dependence: Epidemiological evidence on adolescent-onset marijuana use. Addiction.98, (1), 71-82.2003.
    • ID: 10.1046/j.1360-0443.2003.00237.x (DOI)
  • Ebrahim, Shahul H., Gfroerer, Joseph. Pregnancy-related substance use in the United States during 1996-1998. Obstetrics and Gynecology.101, (2), 374-379.2003.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0029-7844(02)02588-7 (DOI)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Characteristics of New Marijuana Users. NHSDA Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2003.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k3/newMJ/newMJ.pdf (URL)
  • Oggins, Jean. Changes in health insurance and payment for substance use treatment. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.29, (1), 55-74.2003.
    • ID: 10.1081/ADA-120018839 (DOI)
  • Pirkis, Jane E., Irwin, Charles E., Brindis, Claire, Patton, George C., Sawyer, Michael G.. Adolescent Substance Use: Beware of International Comparisons. Journal of Adolescent Health.33, (4), 279-286.2003.
    • ID: 10.1016/S1054-139X(03)00209-X (DOI)
  • Wu, Li-Tzy, Kouzis, Anthony C., Schlenger, William E.. Substance Use, Dependence, and Service Utilization Among the US Uninsured Nonelderly Population. American Journal of Public Health.93, (12), 2079-2085.2003.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.93.12.2079 (DOI)
  • Wu, Li-Tzy, Schlenger, William E.. Psychostimulant dependence in a community sample. Substance Use and Misuse.38, (2), 221-248.2003.
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  • Ewing, Tom. Patterns of Substance Use Among Minority Youth and Adults in the United States: An Overview and Synthesis of National Survey Findings. NEDS Analytic Summary #29.Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. 2002.
    • ID: http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/files/SAMHDA/NTIES/NTIES-PDF/SUMMARIES/29_minority_substance.pdf (URL)
  • Garlow, Steven J.. Age, gender, and ethnic differences in patterns of cocaine and ethanol use preceding suicide. American Journal of Psychiatry.159, (4), 615-619.2002.
    • ID: 10.1176/appi.ajp.159.4.615 (DOI)
  • McAuliffe, William E., LaBrie, Richard, Woodworth, Ryan, Zhang, Caroline. Estimates of potential bias in telephone substance abuse surveys due to exclusion of households without telephones. Journal of Drug Issues.32, (4), 1139-1154.2002.
    • ID: 10.1177/002204260203200409 (DOI)
  • Paschall, Mallie J., Ringwalt, Christopher L., Flewelling, Robert L.. Explaining higher levels of alcohol use among working adolescents: An analysis of potential explanatory variables. Journal of Studies on Alcohol.63, (2), 169-178.2002.
  • Paschall, Mallie, Flewelling, Robert L.. Postsecondary education and heavy drinking by young adults: The moderating effect of race. Journal of Studies on Alcohol.63, (4), 447-455.2002.
  • Pollack, Harold A., Danziger, Sheldon, Seefeldt, Kristin S., Jayakody, Rukmalie. Substance use among welfare recipients. Social Service Review.76, (2), 256-274.2002.
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  • Becker, Kathleen Lent, Walton-Moss, Benita. Detecting and addressing alcohol abuse in women. Nurse Practitioner.26, (10), 13-25.2001.
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Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies (2000): National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1998. Version 4. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series. Version: v4. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02934.v4