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Police Stress and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999

Version
v1
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
Creator
  • Gershon, Robyn (Johns Hopkins University)
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
2000-08-28
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice
Language
English
Free Keywords
domestic violence; family violence; intervention; job stress; police officers; work environment
Description
  • Abstract

    This study was designed to address deficiencies in the existing literature on police work stress and especially on police stress-related domestic violence. The study sought to answer the following questions: (1) What is the relationship between police stress and domestic violence in police families? (2) What is the extent of domestic violence in police families? (3) What are the current stressors that contribute to police stress? (4) What are some of the tools available to measure or evaluate domestic violence in police families? (5) Can potentially effective interventions be identified to address the risk factors for stress-related domestic violence in police families? The study was a collaboration among the Baltimore City Fraternal Order of Police, the Baltimore Police Department, and a research team from the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to approximately 1,100 law enforcement officers who volunteered to participate in the study. Major variables focus on stressors, workplace/stress environment, coworker environment, unfair treatment, work satisfaction, administrative support, health problems, behavior problems, and psychological problems. Demographic variables include gender, age, ethnicity, education, current rank, military service, marital status, and if spouse/partner was a police officer.
  • Abstract

    Law enforcement personnel are considered a population at high risk for psychosocial work stress. This is an important concern because the consequences of police work stress can adversely impact the delivery of effective law enforcement, as well as pose a threat to the safety of police officers, their coworkers, their family and friends, and the general public. In particular, interest has focused on the effect of officers' stress on their spouses (or partners) and families, especially in terms of domestic violence. In response, the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 was promulgated, in part, to promote research on police work stress and to identify and evaluate model stress prevention programs. In further recognition of this problem, many police departments have developed stress-reduction programs. However, most of the programs have been individual-based and reactive rather than organizational and preventive in nature. Recognizing the need for a psychometrically validated and up-to-date police stress assessment tool, and the lack of information on domestic violence in police families and whether it is related to police stress, the researchers designed this study to address these deficiencies in the existing literature on police stress and especially on police stress-related domestic violence. The study sought to answer the following questions: (1) What is the relationship between police stress and domestic violence in police families? (2) What is the extent of domestic violence in police families? (3) What are the current stressors that contribute to police stress? (4) What are some of the tools available to measure or evaluate domestic violence in police families? (5) Can potentially effective interventions be identified to address the risk factors for stress-related domestic violence in police families?
  • Abstract

    The study was a collaboration among the Baltimore City Fraternal Order of Police, the Baltimore Police Department, and a research team from the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. To address deficiencies in the existing literature on police stress, the investigators developed a police stress questionnaire, which included a new police stress scale to capture perceived "felt" stress, and administered it to a large sample of Baltimore City Police Department sworn law enforcement employees. A five-page questionnaire was developed to address four major constructs: (1) stressors, (2) perceived current stress, (3) coping, and (4) health outcomes. The questionnaires were aimed at a 10th-grade reading level and took about 20 minutes to complete. Questionnaires were distributed to approximately 1,100 police officers who volunteered to participate in the survey from a total of more than 2,500 full-time sworn officers who were in attendance during the morning and/or evening roll calls at each of the nine Baltimore precincts. The data that were collected were then utilized by Participatory Action Research (PAR) teams using Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques to identify police stress interventions.
  • Abstract

    Major variables focus on stressors, workplace/stress environment, coworker environment, unfair treatment, work satisfaction, administrative support, health problems, behavior problems, and psychological problems. Demographic variables include gender, age, ethnicity, education, current rank, military service, marital status, and if spouse/partner was a police officer.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Standardized missing values.; Created online analysis version with question text.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Presence of Common Scales: Several Likert-type scales were used.
  • Methods

    Response Rates: The response rate was 68 percent.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS1: Police Stress and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Balitmore, Maryland, 1997-1999
Temporal Coverage
  • 1997 / 1999
    Time period: 1997--1999
  • 1997 / 1999
    Collection date: 1997--1999
Geographic Coverage
  • Baltimore
  • Maryland
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Police officers in Baltimore, Maryland.
Sampling
Convenience sampling.
Collection Mode
  • The user guide, codebook, and data collection instrument are provided as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Website.

Note
Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (97-FS-VX-0001).
Availability
Download
This study is freely available to the general public via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 2976 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Publications
  • Kurtz, Don L., Zavala, Egbert, Melander, Lisa A.. The influence of early strain on later strain, stress responses, and aggression by police officers. Criminal Justice Review.40, (2), 190-208.2015.
    • ID: 10.1177/0734016814564696 (DOI)
  • Zavala, Egbert, Melander, Lisa A., Kurtz, Don L.. The importance of social learning and critical incident stressors on police officers' perpetration of intimate partner violence. Victims and Offenders.10, (1), 51-73.2015.
    • ID: 10.1080/15564886.2014.890688 (DOI)
  • Zavala, Egbert. Examining the offender-victim overlap among police officers: The role of social learning and job-related stress. Violence and Victims.28, (4), 731-748.2013.
    • ID: 10.1891/0886-6708.VV-D-12-00066 (DOI)
  • Zavala, Egbert. Testing the link between child maltreatment and family violence among police officers. Crime and Delinquency.59, (3), 468-483.2013.
  • Kurtz, Don L.. Roll call and the second shift: The influences of gender and family on police stress. Police Practice and Research.13, (1), 71-86.2012.
    • ID: 10.1080/15614263.2011.596714 (DOI)
  • Anderson, Anita S., Lo, Celia C.. Intimate partner violence within law enforcement families. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.26, (6), 1176-1193.2011.
    • ID: 10.1177/0886260510368156 (DOI)
  • Gachter, Martin, Savage, David A., Torgler, Benno. Gender variations of physiological and psychological strain amongst police officers. Gender Issues.28, (1-2), 66-93.2011.
    • ID: 10.1007/s12147-011-9100-9 (DOI)
  • Gachter, Martin, Savage, David A., Torgler, Benno. The relationship between stress, strain and social capital. Policing.34, (3), 515-540.2011.
    • ID: 10.1108/13639511111157546 (DOI)
  • Ivie, Don, Garland, Brett. Stress and burnout in policing: Does military experience matter?. Policing.34, (1), 49-66.2011.
    • ID: 10.1108/13639511111106605 (DOI)
  • Gachter, Martin, Savage, David A., Torgler, Benno. The role of social capital in reducing negative health outcomes among police officers. International Journal of Social Inquiry.3, (1), 141-161.2010.
    • ID: http://www.socialinquiry.org/articles/IJSI-V3N12010%20-%20006.pdf (URL)
  • Halbesleben, Jonathon R.B.. Spousal support and coping among married coworkers: Merging the transaction stress and conservation of resources models. International Journal of Stress Management.17, (4), 384-406.2010.
    • ID: 10.1037/a0020500 (DOI)
  • Gachter, Martin, Savage, David A., Torgler, Benno. Retaining the Thin Blue Line: What Shapes Workers' Willingness Not to Quit the Current Work Environment. Working Paper No. 2009-28.Basel, Switzerland: Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts. 2009.
  • Gachter, Martin, Savage, David A., Torgler, Benno. The Relationship between Stress and Social Capital among Police Officers. Discussion Paper and Working Paper Series.250, Brisbane, Australia: Queensland University of Technology, School of Economics and Finance. 2009.
    • ID: http://external-apps.qut.edu.au/business/documents/discussionPapers/2009/DiscussionPaperandWorkingPaperSeries250.pdf (URL)
  • Gershon, Robyn R. M., Barocas, Briana, Canton, Alison N., Li, Xianbin, Vlahov, David. Mental, physical, and behavioral outcomes associated with perceived work stress in police officers. Criminal Justice and Behavior.36, (3), 275-289.2009.
    • ID: 10.1177/0093854808330015 (DOI)
  • Dowler, Kenneth, Arai, Bruce. Stress, gender and policing: The impact of perceived gender discrimination on symptoms of stress. International Journal of Police Science and Management.10, (2), 123-135.2008.
    • ID: 10.1350/ijps.2008.10.2.81 (DOI)
  • Gul, Serdar Kenan. Police job stress in the USA. Turkish Journal of Police Studies.10, (1), 1-13.2008.
    • ID: http://gear.pol.tr/Yrd.Do%C3%A7.%20Dr.S.Kenan%20G%C3%9CL-1/Police%20Job%20Stress.pdf (URL)
  • Gustafson, Joseph L.. Tokenism in policing: An empirical test of Kanter's hypothesis. Journal of Criminal Justice.36, (1), 1-10.2008.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2007.12.001 (DOI)
  • Kurtz, Don L.. Controlled burn: The gendering of stress and burnout in modern policing. Feminist Criminology.3, (3), 216-238.2008.
    • ID: 10.1177/1557085108321672 (DOI)
  • McCarty, William P., Zhao, Jihong S., Garland, Brett E.. Occupational stress and burnout between male and female police officers: Are there any gender differences. Policing.30, (4), 672-691.2007.
    • ID: 10.1108/13639510710833938 (DOI)
  • Swatt, Marc L., Gibson, Chris L., Piquero, Nicole Leeper. Exploring the utility of general strain theory in explaining problematic alcohol consumption by police officers. Journal of Criminal Justice.35, (6), 596-611.2007.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2007.09.005 (DOI)
  • Geltz, Sara. Partner Violence by Police Officers. Thesis, Southern Illinois University. 2006.
  • Kurtz, Don L.. Controlled Burn: The Gendering of Stress, Burnout, and Violence in Modern Policing. Dissertation, Kansas State University. 2006.
  • Dowler, Kenneth. Job satisfaction, burnout, and perception of unfair treatment: The relationship between race and police work. Police Quarterly.8, (4), 476-489.2005.
    • ID: 10.1177/1098611104269787 (DOI)
  • He, Ni, Zhao, Jihong, Ren, Ling. Do race and gender matter in police stress? A preliminary assessment of the interactive effects. Journal of Criminal Justice.33, (6), 535-547.2005.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2005.08.003 (DOI)
  • Zhao, Jihong S., He, Ni P., Lovrich, Nicholas, Cancino, Jeffrey. Marital status and police occupational stress. Journal of Crime and Justice.26, (2), 23-46.2003.
    • ID: 10.1080/0735648X.2003.9721181 (DOI)
  • Gershon, Robyn R.M., Lin, Susan, Li, Xianbin. Work stress in aging police officers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.44, (2), 160-167.2002.
  • He, Ni, Zhao, Jihong, Archbold, Carol A.. Gender and police stress: The convergent and divergent impact of work environment, work-family conflict, and stress coping mechanisms of female and male police officers. Policing.25, (4), 687-708.2002.
    • ID: 10.1108/13639510210450631 (DOI)
  • Gibson, Chris L., Swatt, Marc L., Jolicoeur, Jason R.. Assessing the generality of General Strain Theory: The relationship among occupational stress experienced by male police officers and domestic forms of violence. Journal of Crime and Justice.24, (2), 29-57.2001.
    • ID: 10.1080/0735648X.2001.9721133 (DOI)
  • Gershon, Robyn. Project SHIELDS, Final Report. NCJ 185892, Washington, DC: Johns Hopkins University [producer], National Institute of Justice [distributor]. 1999.
    • ID: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/185892.pdf (URL)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Gershon, Robyn (2000): Police Stress and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999. Version 1. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02976.v1