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Evaluating a Lethality Scale for the Seattle Police Department Domestic Violence Unit, 1995-1997

Version
v0
Resource Type
Dataset : administrative records data
Creator
  • Wolf, Marsha E. (University of Washington. Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center)
  • Stoner, Julie (University of Washington. Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center)
  • Kernic, Mary A. (University of Washington. Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center)
  • Holt, Victoria L. (University of Washington. Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center)
  • Critchlow, Cathy (University of Washington. Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center)
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
2001-12-21
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice
Language
English
Free Keywords
crime prediction; criminal histories; domestic violence; felony offenses; misdemeanor offenses; program evaluation; risk assessment
Description
  • Abstract

    The specific aim of this project was to evaluate the usefulness of the Seattle Police Department's (SPD) Lethality Scale in identifying misdemeanor cases that might be high risk for escalating violence and subsequent felony incidents. Data provide information on 11,972 unique couples with incidents occurring between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 1997, involving intimate couples in which the suspect was at least 18 years old and the victim was at least 16, with no age restriction for cases referred to the juvenile division. The researchers reformatted the Domestic Violence Unit's (DVU) database to reflect a three-year history of violence between unique couple members. Only intimate couples were considered, meaning suspects and victims who were married, divorced, had a child in common, or were dating. The Lethality Scale was derived from the data in the DVU database. It was composed of six incident characteristic components (offense score, weapon score, location score, injury score, personal score, and incident/other score) with varying values that contributed to an overall score. The Total Lethality Score was the sum of the values from these six components. The lethality score referred to an individual only and did not reflect information about other people involved in the incident. To interpret the score, the DVU specified a period of time--for example, six months--and computed lethality score values for every person involved in an incident during this period. Information on individuals with a Total Lethality Score over a certain cut-off was printed and reviewed by a detective. Data are provided for up to 25 incidents per unique couple. Incident variables in the dataset provide information on number of persons involved in the incident, time and weekday of the incident, beat, precinct, census tract, and place where the incident occurred, type of primary and secondary offenses, if a warrant was served, charges brought, final disposition, weapon type used, arrests made, court order information, if evidence was collected, if statements or photos were taken by the DVU, and sergeant action. Dates were converted to time intervals and provide the number of days between the incident date and the date the file was sent to the prosecutor, the date charges were brought, and the date the case was officially closed. Time intervals were also calculated for days between each incident for that couple. Personal information on the two persons in a couple includes age, gender, injuries and treatment, relationship and cohabitation status of the individuals, pregnancy status of each individual, alcohol and drug use at the time of the incident, and role of the individual in the incident (victim, suspect, victim/suspect). Lethality scale scores are included as well as the number of incidents in which the unique couple was involved in 1995 and 1996, and 1989 median household income for the census tract.
  • Abstract

    The majority of domestic violence incidents involve misdemeanor cases, but Seattle Police Department (SPD) detectives were routinely assigned to follow only felony incidents. Since assigning detective follow-up for all misdemeanor cases was not practical, the SPD created the Lethality Scale to screen misdemeanor domestic violence incidents for assignment to detectives for follow-up. The specific aim of this project was to evaluate the usefulness of the Seattle Police Department's (SPD) Lethality Scale in identifying misdemeanor cases that might be high risk for escalating violence and subsequent felony incidents. However, it should be noted that the term "Lethality Scale" is a misnomer since the scale did not cover only lethal outcomes.
  • Abstract

    Data provide information on 11,972 unique couples with incidents occurring between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 1997, involving intimate couples in which the suspect was at least 18 years old and the victim was at least 16, with no age restriction for cases referred to the juvenile division. The researchers reformatted the Domestic Violence Unit's (DVU) database to reflect a three-year history of violence between unique couple members. Only intimate couples were considered, meaning suspects and victims who were married, divorced, had a child in common, or were dating. An individual's role as suspect or victim could change from incident to incident, meaning in one incident the individual could be a victim and in the next incident, the individual could be a suspect. A "strange couple" designation was given for incidents without a clearly defined victim and a clearly defined suspect. The Lethality Scale was derived from the data in the DVU database. It was composed of six incident characteristic components (offense score, weapon score, location score, injury score, personal score, and incident/other score) with varying values that contributed to an overall score. The Total Lethality Score was the sum of the values from these six components. The lethality score referred to an individual only and did not reflect information about other people involved in the incident. To interpret the score, the DVU specified a period of time--for example, six months--and computed lethality score values for every person involved in an incident during this period. An individual's Total Six Month Lethality Score was the sum of the Total Lethality Scores for every individual involved in an incident over the period of six months. Information on individuals with a Total Six Month Lethality Score over a certain cut-off was printed and reviewed by a detective. The researchers simulated the DVU's approach using two years of DVU data from the database to evaluate the predictive ability of the Lethality Scale.
  • Abstract

    Data are provided for up to 25 incidents per unique couple. Incident variables in the dataset provide information on number of persons involved in the incident, time and weekday of the incident, beat, precinct, census tract, and place where the incident occurred, type of primary and secondary offenses, if a warrant was served, charges brought, final disposition, weapon type used, arrests made, court order information, if evidence was collected, if statements or photos were taken by the DVU, and sergeant action. Dates were converted to time intervals and provide the number of days between the incident date and the date the file was sent to the prosecutor, the date charges were brought, and the date the case was officially closed. Time intervals were also calculated for days between each incident for that couple. Personal information on the two persons in a couple includes age, gender, injuries and treatment, relationship and cohabitation status of the individuals, pregnancy status of each individual, alcohol and drug use at the time of the incident, and role of the individual in the incident (victim, suspect, victim/suspect). Lethality scale scores are included as well as the number of incidents in which the unique couple was involved in 1995 and 1996, and 1989 median household income for the census tract.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Standardized missing values.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Presence of Common Scales: None.
  • Methods

    Response Rates: Not applicable.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • 1995-01-01 / 1997-12-31
    Time period: 1995-01-01--1997-12-31
  • 1995 / 1997
    Collection date: 1995--1997
Geographic Coverage
  • Seattle
  • United States
  • Washington
Sampled Universe
All reported misdemeanor domestic violence incidents in Seattle from 1995-1997.
Collection Mode
  • These data are from Subproject 3 of the grant. The evaluation concluded that the scale, with all the scoring and weighting, reflected recidivism only and could not be modified to be a better predictive tool.

Note
2012-08-22 A Restricted Data Use Agreement form was added to the documentation files that can be downloaded from the study home page. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (95-IJ-CX-0097).
Availability
Delivery
One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 3026 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR03026.v1
Publications
  • Bonomi, Amy E., Holt, Victoria L., Thompson, Robert S., Martin, Diane P.. Ascertainment of intimate partner violence in women seeking legal protection. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.28, (1), 52-58.2005.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.amepre.2004.09.011 (DOI)
  • Roehl, Janice A.. Police Use of Domestic Violence Information Systems. Final Report.NCJ 182435, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 1997.
    • ID: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/182435.pdf (URL)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Wolf, Marsha E.; Stoner, Julie; Kernic, Mary A.; Holt, Victoria L.; Critchlow, Cathy (2001): Evaluating a Lethality Scale for the Seattle Police Department Domestic Violence Unit, 1995-1997. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03026