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National Health Interview Survey, 1998

Resource Type
Dataset : clinical data, survey data
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • National Health Interview Survey Series
Publication Date
Free Keywords
alcohol consumption; child health; chronic disabilities; chronic illnesses; disabilities; doctor visits; families; health behavior; health care; health care services; health problems; health status; hospitalization; household composition; households; illness; immunization; injuries; preventative medicine; smoking
  • Abstract

    The purpose of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is to obtain information about the amount and distribution of illness, its effects in terms of disability and chronic impairments, and the kinds of health services people receive. Implementation of a redesigned NHIS (ICPSR 2954), consisting of a basic module, a periodic module, and a topical module, began in 1997. The present collection consists of the basic module and topical modules on prevention, which contain pregnancy and smoking components along with information on prevention of illness and injury for adults and children. Each record in the Household-Level File (Part 1) of the basic module contains data on the type of living quarters, number of families in the household responding and not responding, and the month and year of the interview for each eligible sampling unit. The Family-Level File (Part 2) is made up of reconstructed variables from the person-level data of the basic module and includes information on sex, age, race, marital status, Hispanic origin, education, veteran status, family income, family size, major activities, health status, activity limits, and employment status, along with industry and occupation. As part of the basic module, the Person-Level File (Part 3) provides information on all family members with respect to health status, limitation of daily activities, cognitive impairment, and health conditions. Also included are data on years at current residence, region variables, height, weight, bed days, doctor visits, hospital stays, and health care access and utilization. A randomly-selected adult in each family was interviewed for the Sample Adult File (Part 4) regarding respiratory conditions, renal conditions, AIDS, joint symptoms, health status, limitation of daily activities, and behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The Sample Child File (Part 5) provides information from a knowledgeable adult in the household on medical conditions of one child in the household, such as respiratory problems, seizures, allergies, and use of special equipment such as hearing aids, braces, or wheelchairs. Also included are questions regarding child behavior and the use of mental health services. The Child Immunization File (Part 6) presents information from shot records and supplies vaccination status, along with the number and dates of shots, and information about the chicken pox vaccine. Episode-based information is found in the Injury Episode File (Part 7), while information in the Injury Verbatim File (Part 8) is comprised of narrative text describing injuries, including type of injury, how the injury occurred, and the body part injured. The Poison Episode File (Part 9) examines the cause and date of injury or poisoning, loss of time from work or school, and whether the poisoning resulted in hospitalization. The prevention modules are being examined to determine the "Healthy People Objectives for 2010," which have the aim of reducing or preventing illness and disease among Americans. The Pregnancy and Smoking Prevention Module (Part 10) contains a record for every woman 18-49 years of age and provides information on tobacco use and smoking during pregnancy. The Sample Adult Prevention Module (Part 11) examines injury prevention, environmental health issues, tobacco use, nutrition, workplace health promotion, heart disease, stroke, chronic diseases, clinical services used, preventive services used, cancer, oral health, physical activity, mental health, family discussions, and firearm safety. The Sample Child Prevention Module (Part 12) provides information on health conditions, dental care, and injury prevention, along with use of seat belts and safety equipment during participation in sports.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Household-Level File
    • DS2: Family-Level File
    • DS3: Person-Level File
    • DS4: Sample Adult File
    • DS5: Sample Child File
    • DS6: Child Immunization File
    • DS7: Injury Episode File
    • DS8: Injury Verbatim File
    • DS9: Poison Episode File
    • DS10: Pregnancy and Smoking Prevention Module
    • DS11: Sample Adult Prevention Module
    • DS12: Sample Child Prevention Module
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1998
  • Collection date: 1998
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
The NHIS uses a stratified multistage probability design. The sample for the NHIS is redesigned every decade using population data from the most recent decennial census. A redesigned sample was implemented in 1995. This new design includes a greater number of primary sampling units (PSUs) (from 198 in 1994 to 358), and a more complicated nonresponse adjustment based on household screening and oversampling of Black and Hispanic persons, for more reliable estimates of these groups.
Collection Mode
  • Users should refer to the codebook for a detailed description of the changes implemented beginning with the 1997 NHIS.

    The data from the Household-Level File can be merged with any of the other files, and other files can be merged as well. For further information on merging data, consult the codebook.

    The periodic module is not yet available from NCHS. When released, it will provide more detailed information on topics resulting from the basic module.

    Per agreement with NCHS, ICPSR distributes the data files and text of the technical documentation in this collection in their original form as prepared by NCHS.

2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 16 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 15 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 14 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 13 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.2001-06-18 The Sample Adult File (Part 4) has been replaced due to additional cleaning of the data by the principal investigator.
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 3107 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR03107.v1
  • Holmes, Christopher J., Zajacova, Anna. Education as 'the Great Equalizer': Health benefits for Black and White adults. Social Science Quarterly.2014.
    • ID: 10.1111/ssqu.12092 (DOI)
  • Cutler, David M., Lleras-Muney, Adriana. Understanding differences in health behaviors by education. Journal of Health Economics.29, (1), 1-28.2010.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2009.10.003 (DOI)
  • Dinkes, Rachel, Kemp, Jana, Baum, Katrina. Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2009. NCJ 228478, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2009.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Rodu, B., Cole, P.. Smoking prevalence: A comparison of two American surveys. Public Health.123, (9), 598-601.2009.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.puhe.2009.07.014 (DOI)
  • Dilley, Julia, Rohde, Kristen, Dent, Clyde, Boysun, Michael J., Stark, Michael J., Reid, Terry. Effective tobacco control in Washington State: A smart investment for healthy futures. Preventing Chronic Disease.4, (3), A65 -2007.
  • Freedman, Vicki A., Schoeni, Robert F., Martin, Linda G., Cornman, Jennifer C.. Chronic Conditions and the decline in late-life disability. Demography.44, (3), 459-477.2007.
    • ID: 10.1353/dem.2007.0026 (DOI)
  • Schnittker, Jason. Working more and feeling better: Women's health, employment, and family life, 1974-2004. American Sociological Review.72, (2), 221-238.2007.
    • ID: 10.1177/000312240707200205 (DOI)
  • Levy, D.E.. Employer-sponsored insurance coverage of smoking cessation treatments. American Journal of Managed Care.12, (9), 553-562.2006.
  • Nelson, David E., Mowery, Paul, Tomar, Scott, Marcus, Stephen, Giovino, Gary, Zhao, Luhua. Trends in smokeless tobacco use among adults and adolescents in the United States. American Journal of Public Health.96, (5), 897-905.2006.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2004.061580 (DOI)
  • Case, Anne, Paxson, Christina. Sex Differences in Morbidity and Mortality. Demography.42, (2), 189-214.2005.
    • ID: 10.1353/dem.2005.0011 (DOI)
  • Mojtabai, Ramin. Trends in Contacts With Mental Health Professionals and Cost Barriers to Mental Health Care Among Adults With Significant Psychological Distress in the United States: 1997-2002. American Journal of Public Health.95, (11), 2009-214.2005.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2003.037630 (DOI)
  • Freedman, Vicki A., Crimmins, Eileen, Schoeni, Robert F., Spillman, Brenda C., Aykan, Hakan, Kramarow, Ellen, Land, Kenneth, Lubitz, James, Manton, Kenneth G., Martin, Linda G., Shinberg, Diane, Waidmann, Timothy. Resolving inconsistencies in trends in old-age disability: Report from a technical working group. Demography.41, (3), 417-441.2004.
    • ID: 10.1353/dem.2004.0022 (DOI)
  • Kataoka, Sheryl H., Zhang, Lily, Wells, Kenneth B.. Unmet Need for Mental Health Care Among U.S.Children: Variation by Ethnicity and Insurance Status. American Journal of Psychiatry.159, (9), 1548-1555.2002.
    • ID: 10.1176/appi.ajp.159.9.1548 (DOI)
  • Troiano, Richard P., Macera, Caroline A., Ballard-Barbash, Rachel. Be physically active each day. How can we know?. Journal of Nutrition.131, (2S), S451-S460.2001.
  • (author unknown). Measuring Childhood Asthma Prevalence Before and After the 1997 Redesign of the National Health Interview Survey--United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.49, (40), 908-911.2000.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Anonymous. Cigarette smoking among adults--United States, 1998. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association.284, (17), 2180-2181.2000.
  • Anonymous. Cigarette smoking among adults--United States, 1998. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.49, (39), 881-884.2000.
  • Anonymous. Measuring childhood asthma prevalence before and after the 1997 redesign of the National Health Interview Survey--United States. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association.284, (18), 2312 -2000.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 8 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

United States Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics (2001): National Health Interview Survey, 1998. Archival Version. National Health Interview Survey Series. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.