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Police Use of Force in Metro-Dade, Florida, and Eugene and Springfield, Oregon, 1993-1995

Version
v0
Resource Type
Dataset : administrative records data
Creator
  • Alpert, Geoffrey P. (University of South Carolina)
  • Dunham, Roger G. (University of Miami)
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
2001-11-02
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice
Language
English
Free Keywords
arrest procedures; arrests; assaults on police; police citizen interactions; police officers; police use of force; police performance
Description
  • Abstract

    This study gathered data on police use of force in Metro-Dade, Florida, and Eugene and Springfield, Oregon. The study differed from previous research in that it addressed the level of force used by the police relative to the suspect's level of resistance. The data for Metro-Dade (Part 1) were collected from official Metro-Dade Police Department Control of Persons Reports from the last quarter of 1993 and all of 1994 and 1995. The Eugene and Springfield dataset (Part 2) was created from items in the Police Officers' Essential Physical Work Report Form, which was completed by members of the Eugene and Springfield, Oregon, Police Departments during April 1995. The dataset includes all police-citizen contacts, rather than being limited to the use-of-force situations captured by the Metro-Dade data. In Part 1 (Metro-Dade Data), information on the subject includes impairment (i.e., alcohol and drugs), behavior (i.e., calm, visibly upset, erratic, or highly agitated), level of resistance used by the subject, types of injuries to the subject, and types of force used by the subject. Information on the officer includes level of force used, medical treatment, and injuries. Other variables include ethnic match between officer and the subject and relative measures of force. Demographic variables include age, gender, race, and ethnicity of both the subject and the officer. In Part 2 (Oregon Data), information is provided on whether the officer was alone, how work was initiated, elapsed time until arrival, reasons for performance, perceived mental state and physical abilities of the suspect, amount and type of resistance by the suspect, if another officer assisted, perceived extent of effort used by the suspect, type of resistance used by the suspect, if the officer was knocked or wrestled to the ground, if the officer received an injury, level of effort used to control the suspect, types of control tactics used on the suspect, whether the officer was wearing tactical gear, how restraint devices were applied to inmate, time taken to get to, control, resolve, and remove the problem, how stressful the lead-up time or the period following the incident was, if the officer worked with a partner, types of firearm used, and if force was used. Demographic variables include age, gender, weight, and height of both the suspect and officer, and the officer's duty position.
  • Abstract

    Collecting and interpreting information on police use of force has been a persistent problem for police managers and researchers. Although data on this issue are critical to both the police and the public, the data remain difficult to collect, measure, and interpret objectively. The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 requires the United States Attorney General to collect information on law enforcement officers' use of force. This act has led to an energetic effort to collect data on all police use-of-force incidents, including excessive force, by various groups and methods. This study gathered data on police use of force in Metro-Dade, Florida, and Eugene and Springfield, Oregon. The study differed from previous research in that it addressed the level of force used by the police relative to the suspect's level of resistance.
  • Abstract

    The data for Metro-Dade (Part 1) were collected from official Metro-Dade Police Department Control of Persons Reports from the last quarter of 1993 and all of 1994 and 1995. These data were reported by the officer's supervisor after talking to the officer, suspect, and available witnesses. The department's computerized information database was used to create the dataset. The Eugene and Springfield dataset (Part 2) was created from items in the Police Officers' Essential Physical Work Report Form, which was completed by members of the Eugene and Springfield Police Departments during April 1995. The data included all police-citizen contacts, rather than being limited to the use-of-force situations captured by the Metro-Dade data.
  • Abstract

    Part 1 (Metro-Dade Data), information on the subject includes impairment (i.e., alcohol and drugs), behavior (i.e., calm, visibly upset, erratic, or highly agitated), level of resistance used by the subject, types of injuries to the subject, and types of force used by the subject. Information on the officer includes level of force used, medical treatment, and injuries. Other variables include ethnic match between officer and the subject and relative measures of force. Demographic variables include age, gender, race, and ethnicity of both the subject and the officer. In Part 2 (Oregon Data), information is provided on whether the officer was alone, how work was initiated, elapsed time until arrival, reasons for performance, perceived mental state and physical abilities of the suspect, amount and type of resistance by the suspect, if another officer assisted, perceived extent of effort used by the suspect, type of resistance used by the suspect, if the officer was knocked or wrestled to the ground, if the officer received an injury, level of effort used to control the suspect, types of control tactics used on the suspect, whether the officer was wearing tactical gear, how restraint devices were applied to inmate, time taken to get to, control, resolve, and remove the problem, how stressful the lead-up time or the period following the incident was, if the officer worked with a partner, types of firearm used, and if force was used. Demographic variables include age, gender, weight, and height of both the suspect and officer, and the officer's duty position.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Standardized missing values.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Presence of Common Scales: Several Likert-type scales were used in Part 2.
  • Methods

    Response Rates: Not applicable.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Metro-Dade Data
    • DS2: Oregon Data
Temporal Coverage
  • 1993 / 1995
    Time period: 1993--1995
  • Collection date: 1995
Geographic Coverage
  • Eugene
  • Florida
  • Oregon
  • Springfield
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Police use-of-force incidents in Metro-Dade, Florida, and police-citizen contacts in Eugene and Springfield, Oregon.
Sampling
Not applicable.
Note
2006-03-30 File CB3152.ALL.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (95-IJ-CX-0104).
Availability
Delivery
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (help@icpsr.umich.edu).
Alternative Identifiers
  • 3152 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR03152.v1
Publications
  • Johnson, Richard R.. Suspect mental disorder and police use of force. Criminal Justice and Behavior.38, (2), 127-145.2011.
    • ID: 10.1177/0093854810388160 (DOI)
  • Lee, Hoon, Jang, Hyunseok, Yun, Ilhong, Lim, Hyeyoung, Tushaus, David W.. An examination of police use of force utilizing police training and neighborhood contextual factors: A multilevel analysis. Policing.33, (4), 681-702.2010.
    • ID: 10.1108/13639511011085088 (DOI)
  • Parker, Karen F., MacDonald, John M., Jennings, Wesley G., Alpert, Geoffrey P.. Racial threat, urban conditions and police use of force: assessing the direct and indirect linkages across multiple urban areas. Justice Research and Policy.7, (1), 54-79.2005.
    • ID: 10.3818/JRP.7.1.2005.53 (DOI)
  • Smith, Michael R., Alpert, Geoffrey P.. Pepper spray - A safe and reasonable response to suspect verbal resistance. Policing.23, (2), 233-245.2000.
    • ID: 10.1108/13639510010333859 (DOI)
  • Alpert, Geoffrey P.. A factorial analysis of police pursuit driving decisions: A research note. Justice Quarterly.15, (2), 347-359.1998.
    • ID: 10.1080/07418829800093781 (DOI)
  • Alpert, Geoffrey P., Dunham, Roger G.. Analysis of Police Use-of-Force Data, Final Report. NCJ 183648, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 1998.
    • ID: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/183648.pdf (URL)
  • Alpert, Geoffrey P., Dunham, Roger G.. Measuring and Assessing Police Use of Force and Suspect Resistance. NCJ 183649, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice. 1998.
  • Morrison, Gregory B., Vila, Bryan J.. Police handgun qualification: Practical measure or aimless activity?. Policing.21, (3), 510-533.1998.
  • Wells, L. Edward, Falcone, David N.. Research on police pursuits: advantages of multiple data collection strategies. Policing.20, (4), 729-748.1997.
  • Klinger, David A.. More on demeanor and arrest in Dade County. Criminology.34, (1), 61-79.1996.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1996.tb01195.x (DOI)
  • Worden, Robert E., Shepard, Robin L.. Demeanor, crime, and police behavior: A reexamination of the Police Services Study data. Criminology.34, (1), 83-105.1996.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1996.tb01196.x (DOI)
  • Klinger, David A.. Demeanor or crime?: Why 'hostile' citizens are more likely to be arrested. Criminology.32, (3), 475-493.1994.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1994.tb01162.x (DOI)
  • Lundman, Richard J.. Demeanor or crime? The Midwest city police-citizen encounters study. Criminology.32, (4), 631 -1994.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1994.tb01168.x (DOI)
  • Alpert, Geoffrey P., Dunham, Roger G.. Force Factor: Measuring Police Use of Force Relative to Suspect Resistance. NCJ 167260, . .

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Alpert, Geoffrey P.; Dunham, Roger G. (2001): Police Use of Force in Metro-Dade, Florida, and Eugene and Springfield, Oregon, 1993-1995. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03152