Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, 1995-1996: [United States]

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • World Health Organization
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) Series
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
  • World Health Organization
Free Keywords
adolescents; alcohol; demographic characteristics; drug use; eating habits; educational environment; family life; health behavior; injuries; mental health; nutrition; risk; school age children; school violence; schools; tobacco use
  • Abstract

    Since 1982, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has sponsored a cross-national, school-based study of health-related attitudes and behaviors of young people. These studies, generally known as Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC), are based on nationally independent surveys of school-aged children in as many as 30 participating countries. The HBSC studies were conducted every four years since the 1985-1986 school year. The United States was one of three countries chosen to implement the survey out of cycle. The data available here are the results of the United States study from the 1995-1996 school year. The study results can be used as stand-alone data, or to compare to the other countries involved in the international HBSC. The HBSC study has two main objectives. The first objective is to monitor health-risk behaviors and attitudes in youth over time to provide background and identify targets for health promotion initiatives. The second objective is to provide researchers with relevant information to understand and explain the development of health attitudes and behaviors through early adolescence. The study contains variables dealing with many types of drugs such as tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, hallucinogens, and over-the-counter medications. The study also examines a person's health and health behaviors such as eating habits, depression, injuries, anti-social behavior including questions concerning bullying, fighting, using weapons, and how one deals with anger. There are also questions concerning problems with attention span at school and opinions about school itself.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed consistency checks.; Created online analysis version with question text.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC), 1995-1996
Temporal Coverage
  • 1995 / 1996
    Time period: 1995--1996
  • 1995 / 1996
    Collection date: 1995--1996
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Children in grades 6, 8, and 10 in the United States.
This study employed a three-stage cluster design in which the school district was the primary sampling unit (PSU) or first stage (sometimes smaller districts were combined as a single PSU), school was the second stage, and classroom was the third stage. The targeted mean in the age groups were 11.5, 13.5, and 15.5 years. The three selected age groups correspond approximately to grades 6, 8, and 10 in the United States. However, the degree of correspondence varied greatly, depending on the frequency with which students were left back (repeated a grade) and the time of year when the survey was administered.
Collection Mode
  • To protect the anonymity of respondents, all variables that could be used to identify individuals have been collapsed or recoded in the public use files. These modifications should not affect analytic uses of the public use files.

2008-04-23 The principal investigator supplied a new data file that contained the complex sample design variables that were missing from the file previously. A few variable's value labels were updated to match more closely what is shown in the questionnaire. Also data in a few variables were recoded to correct errors. Two new variables, SIBGUARD and RESPADLT, were created to indicate the person(s) responsible for the care of the respondent. Another new variable Q97_COMP was created. It recodes Q97 into a dichotomous Yes/No relationship asking if the respondent had ever used over-the-counter medications.2008-01-29 The data are now provided in additional file formats, including one or more of the following: Stata setup, SAS transport (CPORT), SPSS system, Stata system, SAS supplemental syntax, Stata supplemental syntax files, and tab-delimited ASCII data file. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. World Health Organization.
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 3154 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR03154.v1
  • Srabstein, Jorge, Piazza, Thomas. Is there a syndrome of bullying? . International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health.24, (1), 91-96.2012.
    • ID: 10.1515/IJAMH.2012.013 (DOI)
  • Srabstein, Jorge, Piazza, Thomas. Public health, safety and educational risks associated with bullying behaviors in American adolescents. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health.20, (2), 223-233.2008.
    • ID: 10.1515/IJAMH.2008.20.2.223 (DOI)
  • Saluja, Gitanjali, Iachan, Ronaldo, Scheidt, Peter C., Overpeck, Mary D., Sun, Wenyu, Giedd, Jay N.. Prevalence of and risk factors for depressive symptoms among young adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine.158, (8), 760-765.2004.
    • ID: 10.1001/archpedi.158.8.760 (DOI)
  • Sen, Bisakha. Adolescent Propensity for Depressed Mood and Help Seeking: Race and Gender Differences. Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics.7, (3), 133-145.2004.
  • Kerby, Dave S., Brand, Michael W., John, Robert. Anger types and the use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco among Native American adolescents. Preventive Medicine.37, (5), 485-491.2003.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0091-7435(03)00174-9 (DOI)
  • Haugland, S., Wold, B.. Subjective health complaints in adolescence: Reliability and validity of survey methods. Journal of Adolescence.24, (5), 611-624.2001.
    • ID: 10.1006/jado.2000.0393 (DOI)
  • Nansel, T.R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R.S., Ruan, W.J., Simons-Morton, B., Scheidt, P.. Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association.285, (16), 2094-2100.2001.
    • ID: 10.1001/jama.285.16.2094 (DOI)
  • (author unknown). The WHO cross-national study on health behavior in school-aged children from 28 countries: Findings from the United States. Journal of School Health.70, (6), 227-228.2000.
  • Harel, Yosi. A cross-national study of youth violence in Europe. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health.11, (3-4), 121-134.1999.
    • ID: 10.1515/IJAMH.1999.11.3-4.121 (DOI)
  • King, Alan, et al. The Health of Youth: A Cross-National Survey. A Report of the 1993-1994 Survey Results of Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children, a WHO Cross-National Study. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe. 1996.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 10 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15