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Project on Policing Neighborhoods in Indianapolis, Indiana, and St. Petersburg, Florida, 1996-1997

Version
v2
Resource Type
Dataset : observation data, survey data, administrative records data, and census/enumeration data
Creator
  • Mastrofski, Stephen D. (George Mason University)
  • Parks, Roger B. (Indiana University)
  • Worden, Robert E. (University at Albany)
  • Reiss, Albert J. Jr. (Yale University)
Other Title
  • Version 2 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
2002-12-09
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice
Language
English
Free Keywords
citizen attitudes; communities; community policing; neighborhood conditions; neighborhoods; perception of crime; police; police citizen interactions; police effectiveness; police patrol
Description
  • Abstract

    The purpose of the Project on Policing Neighborhoods (POPN) was to provide an in-depth description of how the police and the community interact with each other in a community policing (CP) environment. Research was conducted in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 1996 and in St. Petersburg, Florida, in 1997. Several research methods were employed: systematic observation of patrol officers (Parts 1-4) and patrol supervisors (Parts 5-14), in-person interviews with patrol officers (Part 15) and supervisors (Parts 16-17), and telephone surveys of residents in selected neighborhoods (Part 18). Field researchers accompanied their assigned patrol or supervising officer during all activities and encounters with the public during the shift. Field researchers noted when various activities and encounters with the public occurred during these "ride-alongs," who was involved, and what happened. In the resulting data files coded observation data are provided at the ride level, the activity level (actions that did not involve interactions with citizens), the encounter level (events in which officers interacted with citizens), and the citizen level. In addition to encounters with citizens, supervisors also engaged in encounters with patrol officers. Patrol officers and patrol supervisors in both Indianapolis and St. Petersburg were interviewed one-on-one in a private interviewing room during their regular work shifts. Citizens in the POPN study beats were randomly selected for telephone surveys to determine their views about problems in their neighborhoods and other community issues. Administrative records were used to create site identification data (Part 19) and data on staffing (Part 20). This data collection also includes data compiled from census records, aggregated to the beat level for each site (Part 21). Census data were also used to produce district populations for both sites (Part 22). Citizen data were aggregated to the encounter level to produce counts of various citizen role categories and characteristics and characteristics of the encounter between the patrol officer and citizens in the various encounters (Part 23). Ride-level data (Parts 1, 5, and 10) contain information about characteristics of the ride, including start and end times, officer identification, type of unit, and beat assignment. Activity data (Parts 2, 6, and 11) include type of activity, where and when the activity took place, who was present, and how the officer was notified. Encounter data (Parts 3, 7, and 12) contain descriptive information on encounters similar to the activity data (i.e., location, initiation of encounter). Citizen data (Parts 4, 8, and 13) provide citizen characteristics, citizen behavior, and police behavior toward citizens. Similarly, officer data from the supervisor observations (Parts 9 and 14) include characteristics of the supervising officer and the nature of the interaction between the officers. Both the patrol officer and supervisor interview data (Parts 15-17) include the officers' demographics, training and knowledge, experience, perceptions of their beats and organizational environment, and beliefs about the police role. The patrol officer data also provide the officers' perceptions of their supervisors while the supervisor data describe supervisors' perceptions of their subordinates, as well as their views about their roles, power, and priorities as supervisors. Data from surveyed citizens (Part 18) provide information about their neighborhoods, including years in the neighborhood, distance to various places in the neighborhood, neighborhood problems and effectiveness of police response to those problems, citizen knowledge of, or interactions with, the police, satisfaction with police services, and friends and relatives in the neighborhood. Citizen demographics and geographic and weight variables are also included. Site identification variables (Part 19) include ride and encounter numbers, site beat (site, district, and beat or community policing areas [CPA]), and sector. Staffing variables (Part 20) include district, shift, and staffing levels for various shifts. Census data (Part 21) include neighborhood, index of socioeconomic distress, total population, and total white population. District population variables (Part 22) include district and population of district. The aggregated citizen data (Part 23) provide the ride and encounter numbers, number of citizens in the encounter, counts of citizens by their various roles, and by sex, age, race, wealth, if known by the police, under the influence of alcohol or drugs, physically injured, had a weapon, or assaulted the police, counts by type of encounter, and counts of police and citizen actions during the encounter.
  • Abstract

    In the broadest sense, the purpose of the Project on Policing Neighborhoods (POPN) was to provide an in-depth description of how the police and the community interact with each other in a community policing (CP) environment. Data were collected to facilitate studies on the following issues: (1) how patrol officers spend their time, (2) how officers use their authority to intervene in citizens' lives, (3) how problem citizens are controlled, (4) how civility and cooperation between police and public is obtained, (5) what officer characteristics are associated with high CP performance, (6) the role of first-line supervisors, (7) the context for street-level performance set by management, and (8) how patterns of policing vary among neighborhoods and the impact they have on neighborhood quality of life. For this study, "neighborhood" in operational terms meant the patrol beat. Indianapolis used the term "beat" and St. Petersburg used the term "community policing area" (CPA) to define the smallest geographical space to which an individual officer would be assigned patrol responsibilities.
  • Abstract

    Research was conducted in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 1996 and in St. Petersburg, Florida, in 1997. Several research methods were employed: systematic observation of patrol officers (Parts 1-4) and patrol supervisors (Parts 5-14), in-person interviews with patrol officers (Part 15) and supervisors (Parts 16-17), and telephone surveys of residents in selected neighborhoods (Part 18). Field researchers accompanied their assigned officer during all activities and encounters with the public during the shift. Field researchers noted when various activities and encounters with the public occurred during these "ride-alongs," who was involved, and what happened. Back at the project offices, these field notes formed that basis for narrative descriptions of the events, and observers also coded numeric data on specific elements of the ride, events, and participants. Patrol observation data are provided at the ride level, the activity level, the encounter level, and the citizen level. Activity data focused on police activities that did not involve interaction with citizens. These typically include administrative duties, roll call, travel (en route to scene), general patrol, and personal activities, such as meals. Activity records are nested within rides. Encounter data contain events in which the officers interacted with citizens. Encounters are subclassified into full, brief, and casual encounters. Encounters are nested within rides. Citizen data describe the citizens involved in encounters with the police. Citizen records are nested within encounters. In addition to encounters with citizens, supervisors also engaged in encounters with patrol officers. Patrol officers and patrol supervisors in both Indianapolis and St. Petersburg were interviewed one-on-one in a private interviewing room during their regular work shifts. The patrol officer and supervisor interview instruments were similar, and interviews were normally completed in 20-25 minutes. Citizens in the POPN study beats were randomly selected for telephone surveys to determine their views about problems in their neighborhood and other community issues. Administrative records were used to create site identification data (Part 19) and data on staffing (Part 20). This data collection also includes data compiled from census records, aggregated to the beat level for each site (Part 21). Census data were also used to produce district populations for both sites (Part 22). Citizen data were aggregated to the encounter level to produce counts of various citizen role categories and characteristics and characteristics of the encounter between the patrol officer and citizens in the various encounters (Part 23).
  • Abstract

    Ride-level data (Parts 1, 5, and 10) contain information about characteristics of the ride, including start and end times, officer identification, type of unit, and beat assignment. Activity data (Parts 2, 6, and 11) include type of activity, where and when the activity took place, who was present, and how the officer was notified. Encounter data (Parts 3, 7, and 12) contain descriptive information on encounters similar to the activity data (i.e., location, initiation of encounter). Citizen data (Parts 4, 8, and 13) provide citizen characteristics, citizen behavior, and police behavior toward citizens. Similarly, officer data from the supervisor observations (Parts 9 and 14) include characteristics of the supervising officer and the nature of the interaction between the officers. Both the patrol officer and supervisor interview data (Parts 15-17) include the officers' demographics, training and knowledge, experience, perceptions of their beats and organizational environment, and beliefs about the police role. The patrol officer data also provide the officers' perceptions of their supervisors while the supervisor data describe supervisors' perceptions of their subordinates, as well as their views about their roles, power, and priorities as supervisors. Data from surveyed citizens (Part 18) provide information about their neighborhoods, including years in the neighborhood, distance to various places in the neighborhood, neighborhood problems and effectiveness of police response to those problems, citizen knowledge of, or interactions with, the police, satisfaction with police services, and friends and relatives in the neighborhood. Citizen demographics and geographic and weight variables are also included. Site identification variables (Part 19) include ride and encounter numbers, site beat (site, district, and beat or community policing areas [CPA]), and sector. Staffing variables (Part 20) include district, shift, and staffing levels for various shifts. Census data (Part 21) include neighborhood, index of socioeconomic distress, total population, and total white population. District population variables (Part 22) include district and population of district. The aggregated citizen data (Part 23) provide the ride and encounter numbers, number of citizens in the encounter, counts of citizens by their various roles, and by sex, age, race, wealth, if known by the police, under the influence of alcohol or drugs, physically injured, had a weapon, or assaulted the police, counts by type of encounter, and counts of police and citizen actions during the encounter.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Standardized missing values.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Presence of Common Scales: Several Likert-type scales were used.
  • Methods

    Response Rates: The response rate for the patrol officer surveys was 93 percent in Indianapolis and 98 percent in St. Petersburg. For the patrol supervisor surveys the response rate was 93 percent in Indianapolis and 100 percent in St. Petersburg. The response rate for the citizen surveys was 53 percent in Indianapolis and 42 percent in St. Petersburg.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Indianapolis and St. Petersburg Patrol Ride Data
    • DS2: Indianapolis and St. Petersburg Patrol Activity Data
    • DS3: Indianapolis and St. Petersburg Patrol Encounter Data
    • DS4: Indianapolis and St. Petersburg Patrol Citizen Data
    • DS5: Indianapolis Supervisor Ride Data
    • DS6: Indianapolis Supervisor Activity Data
    • DS7: Indianapolis Supervisor Encounters With Citizens Data
    • DS8: Indianapolis Supervisor Citizen Data
    • DS9: Indianapolis Supervisor Encounters With Patrol Officers Data
    • DS10: St. Petersburg Supervisor Ride Data
    • DS11: St. Petersburg Supervisor Activity Data
    • DS12: St. Petersburg Supervisor Encounters With Citizens Data
    • DS13: St. Petersburg Supervisor Citizen Data
    • DS14: St. Petersburg Supervisor Encounters With Patrol Officers Data
    • DS15: Indianapolis and St. Petersburg Patrol Officer Interview Data
    • DS16: Indianapolis Supervisor Interview Data
    • DS17: St. Petersburg Supervisor Interview Data
    • DS18: Indianapolis and St. Petersburg Citizen Survey Data
    • DS19: Indianapolis and St. Petersburg Site Identification Data
    • DS20: Indianapolis and St. Petersburg Staffing Data
    • DS21: Indianapolis and St. Petersburg Census Data
    • DS22: Indianapolis and St. Petersburg District Population Data
    • DS23: Indianapolis and St. Petersburg Citizen Data From Patrol Data Aggregated to the Encounter Level
Temporal Coverage
  • 1996 / 1997
    Time period: 1996--1997
  • 1996 / 1997
    Collection date: 1996--1997
Geographic Coverage
  • Florida
  • Indiana
  • Indianapolis
  • St. Petersburg
  • United States
Sampled Universe
All patrol and supervising law enforcement officers in the study areas of Indianapolis in 1996 and St. Petersburg in 1997.
Sampling
Indianapolis and St. Petersburg were chosen according to specific criteria. A sampling plan of the neighborhoods in each city was designed to ensure variation in the service conditions of police, using socioeconomic features of neighborhoods as proxies for those conditions. Residents in the POPN study beats were randomly selected for the citizen survey.
Collection Mode
  • (1) The narrative descriptions of the ride-alongs are not available as part of this collection, (2) Following the "rule of ten" guidelines used by the POPN researchers, users of the data should make no attributions to an officer (or group of officers) with specified characteristics unless at least ten officers in the sample share the same characteristics.

Note
2007-06-01 A nonrestricted downloadable version (da03160-0018.sav) of the Indianapolis and St. Petersburg Citizen Survey Data (Part 18) was added to this data collection. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (95-IJ-CX-0071).
Availability
Download
One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 3160 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR03160.v1
Publications
  • Sobol, James J., Wu, Yuning, Sun, Ivan Y.. Neighborhood context and police vigor: A multilevel analysis. Crime and Delinquency.59, (3), 344-368.2013.
    • ID: 10.1177/0011128712470348 (DOI)
  • Boyd, Lorenzo M.. Light blue versus dark blue: Attitudinal differences in quality-of-life policing. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice.8, (1), 37-48.2010.
    • ID: 10.1080/15377930903583079 (DOI)
  • Rydberg, Jason, Terrill, William. The effect of higher education on police behavior. Police Quarterly.13, (1), 92-120.2010.
    • ID: 10.1177/1098611109357325 (DOI)
  • Schaible, Lonnie M., Gecas, Viktor. The impact of emotional labor and value dissonance on burnout among police officers. Police Quarterly.13, (3), 316-341.2010.
    • ID: 10.1177/1098611110373997 (DOI)
  • Sobol, James J.. Social ecology and police discretion: The influence of district crime, cynicism, and workload on the vigor of police response. Journal of Criminal Justice.38, (4), 481-488.2010.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2010.04.017 (DOI)
  • Sobol, James J.. The social ecology of police attitudes. Policing.33, (2), 253-269.2010.
    • ID: 10.1108/13639511011044876 (DOI)
  • Chu, Doris, Sun, Ivan Y.. Female police officers' job-related attitudes. Women and Criminal Justice.18, (1-2), 107-130.2008.
    • ID: 10.1300/J012v18n01_04 (DOI)
  • Dejong, Christina, Burgess-Proctor, Amanda, Elis, Lori. Police officer perceptions of intimate partner violence: An analysis of observational data. Violence and Victims.23, (6), 683-696.2008.
    • ID: 10.1891/0886-6708.23.6.683 (DOI)
  • Foley, Tracy, Terrill, William. Police comfort and victims. Victims and Offenders.3, 192-216.2008.
    • ID: 10.1080/15564880801938334 (DOI)
  • Rabe-Hemp, Cara E.. Female officers and the ethic of care: Does officer gender impact police behavior?. Journal of Criminal Justice.36, (6), 426-434.2008.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2008.07.001 (DOI)
  • Sun, Ivan K., Chu, Doris C.. A cross-national analysis of female police officers' attitudes in the United States and Taiwan. International Criminal Justice Review.18, (1), 5-23.2008.
    • ID: 10.1177/1057567708315652 (DOI)
  • Sun, Ivan Y., Chu, Doris C.. A comparison of occupational attitudes between Taiwanese and American police officers. International Journal of Police Science and Management.10, (1), 36-50.2008.
    • ID: 10.1350/ijps.2008.10.1.36 (DOI)
  • Sun, Ivan Y., Payne, Brian K., Wu, Yuning. The impact of situational factors, officer characteristics, and neighborhood context on police behavior: A multilevel analysis. Journal of Criminal Justice.36, (1), 22-32.2008.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2007.12.004 (DOI)
  • Sun, Ivan Y., Triplett, Ruth A.. Differential perceptions of neighborhood problems by police and residents: The impact of neighborhood-level characteristics. Policing.31, (3), 435-455.2008.
    • ID: 10.1108/13639510810895795 (DOI)
  • Paoline, Eugene A., III, Terrill, W.. Police education, experience, and the use of force. Criminal Justice and Behavior.34, (2), 179-196.2007.
    • ID: 10.1177/0093854806290239 (DOI)
  • Sobol, James J.. Social Ecology and the Vigor of Police Response: An Empirical Study of Contexts, Work Norms and Patrol Officer Behavior. Dissertation, University at Albany, State University of New York. 2007.
  • Spano, Richard. How does reactivity affect police behavior? Describing and quantifying the impact of reactivity as behavioral change in a large-scale observational study of police. Journal of Criminal Justice.35, (4), 453-465.2007.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2007.05.008 (DOI)
  • Sun, Ivan K.. Policing domestic violence: Does officer gender matter?. Journal of Criminal Justice.35, (6), 581-595.2007.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2007.09.004 (DOI)
  • Terrill, William, Paoline, Eugene A., III. Nonarrest decision making in police citizen encounters. Police Quarterly.10, (3), 308-331.2007.
    • ID: 10.1177/1098611107299998 (DOI)
  • Paoline, Eugene A., III. The myth of a monolithic police culture. Demystifying Crime and Criminal Justice.Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing Company. 2006.
  • Rabe-Hemp, Cara E.. The Effect of Gender in Police-Citizen Interactions. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago. 2006.
  • Spano, Richard. Observer behavior as a potential source of reactivity: Describing and quantifying observer effects in a large-scale observational study of police. Sociological Methods and Research.34, (4), 521-553.2006.
    • ID: 10.1177/0049124106286331 (DOI)
  • Spano, Richard, Reisig, Michael D.. 'Drop the clipboard and help me!': The determinants of observer behavior in police encounters with suspects. Journal of Criminal Justice.34, 619-629.2006.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2006.09.015 (DOI)
  • Sun, Ivan Y.. Police response to victims of domestic and non-domestic violence. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration.29, (1/2), 145-172.2006.
  • Sun, Ivan Y., Chu, Doris. Attitudinal differences between Taiwanese and American police officers. Policing.29, (2), 190-210.2006.
    • ID: 10.1108/13639510610667628 (DOI)
  • McCluskey, John D., Terrill, William. Departmental and citizen complaints as predictors of police coercion. Policing.28, (3), 513-529.2005.
    • ID: 10.1108/13639510510614582 (DOI)
  • McCluskey, John D., William, Terrill, Paoline, Eugene A., III. Peer group aggressiveness and the use of coercion in police-suspect encounters. Police Practice and Research.6, (1), 19-37.2005.
    • ID: 10.1080/1561426050046954 (DOI)
  • Novak, K.S., Engel, R.S.. Disentangling the influence of suspects' demeanor and mental disorder on arrest. Policing.28, (3), 493-512.2005.
  • Paoline, Eugene A., III, Terrill, W.. The impact of police culture on traffic stop searches: An analysis of attitudes and behavior. Policing.28, (3), 455-472.2005.
    • ID: 10.1108/13639510510614555 (DOI)
  • Parks, Roger B., Mastrofski, Stephen D.. Police Racial Profiling in Two American Cities: Some Evidence on Stops and Searches. Festschrift for Elinor Ostrom: Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis.Bloomington, IN. 2005.
    • ID: http://www.indiana.edu/~workshop/papers/parks_festschrift.pdf (URL)
  • Payne, Brian K., Berg, Bruce L., Sun, Ivan Y.. Policing in small town America: Dogs, drunks, disorder and dysfunction. Journal of Criminal Justice.33, (1), 31-41.2005.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2004.10.006 (DOI)
  • Schafer, J., Mastrofski, S.. Police leniency in traffic enforcement encounters: Exploratory findings from observations and interviews. Journal of Criminal Justice.33, 225-238.2005.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2005.02.003 (DOI)
  • Spano, Richard. Potential sources of observer bias in police observational data. Social Science Research.34, (3), 591-617.2005.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2004.05.003 (DOI)
  • Terrill, William. Police Use of Force: A Transactional Approach. Justice Quarterly.22, (1), 107-138.2005.
    • ID: 10.1080/0741882042000333663 (DOI)
  • Terrill, William, Weidner, Robert R.. A Test of Turk's Theory of Norm Resistance Using Observational Data on Police-Suspect Encounters. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.42, (1), 84-109.2005.
  • DeJong, Christina. Gender Differences in Officer Attitude and Behavior: Providing Comfort to Citizens. Women and Criminal Justice.15, (3/4), 1-32.2004.
    • ID: 10.1300/J012v15n03_01 (DOI)
  • Gould, J.B., Mastrofski, S.. Suspect searches: Assessing police behavior under the constitution. Criminology and Public Policy.3, 316-362.2004.
  • Paoline, Eugene A., III. Shedding light on police culture: An examination of officer's occupational attitudes. Police Quarterly.7, (2), 205-236.2004.
    • ID: 10.1177/1098611103257074 (DOI)
  • Paoline, Eugene A., Terrill, William. Women police officers and the use of coercion. Women and Criminal Justice.15, (3/4), 97-119.2004.
    • ID: 10.1300/J012v15n03_05 (DOI)
  • Reisig, M., McCluskey, S., Mastrofski, S., Terrill, W.. Suspect disrespect toward police. Justice Quarterly.21, 241-268.2004.
    • ID: 10.1080/07418820400095801 (DOI)
  • Reisig, Michael D., Parks, Roger B.. Can community policing help the truly disadvantaged?. Crime and Delinquency.50, (2), 139-167.2004.
    • ID: 10.1177/0011128703253157 (DOI)
  • Reisig, Michael D., Parks, Roger B.. Community Policing and Quality of Life. Community Policing: Can It Work?.Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. 2004.
  • Sun, Ivan Y., Payne, Brian K.. Racial Differences in Resolving Conflicts: A Comparison Between Black and White Police Officers. Crime and Delinquency.50, (4), 516-541.2004.
    • ID: 10.1177/0011128703259298 (DOI)
  • Sun, Ivan Y., Triplett, Ruth A., Gainey, Randy R.. Social disorganization, legitimacy of local institutions, and neighborhood crime: An exploratory study of perceptions of the police and local government. Journal of Crime and Justice.27, (1), 33-60.2004.
    • ID: 10.1080/0735648X.2004.9721628 (DOI)
  • Terrill, William, Mastrofski, Stephen D.. Working the street: Does community policing matter?. Community Policing: Can It Work.Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. 2004.
  • Engel, Robin Shepard. How Police Supervisory Styles Influence Patrol Officer Behavior. NIJ Research for Practice.NCJ 194078, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 2003.
    • ID: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/194078.pdf (URL)
  • Engel, Robin Shepard, Worden, Robert E.. Police officers' attitudes, behavior, and supervisory influences: An analysis of problem solving. Criminology.41, (1), 131-166.2003.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2003.tb00984.x (DOI)
  • Reisig, Michael D., Parks, Roger B.. Neighborhood context, police behavior, and satisfaction with police. Justice Research and Policy.5, (1), 37-65.2003.
    • ID: 10.3818/JRP.5.1.2003.37 (DOI)
  • Robinson, Amanda L.. The impact of police social capital on officer performance of community policing. Policing.26, (4), 656-689.2003.
  • Spano, Richard. Concerns about safety, observer sex, and the decision to arrest: Evidence of reactivity in a large-scale observational study of police. Criminology.41, (3), 909-932.2003.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2003.tb01008.x (DOI)
  • Sun, Ivan Y.. A comparison of police field training officers' and nontraining officers' conflict resolution styles: Controlling versus supportive strategies. Police Quarterly.6, (1), 22-50.2003.
    • ID: 10.1177/1098611102250573 (DOI)
  • Sun, Ivan Y.. Officer proactivity: A comparison between police field training officers and non-field training officers. Journal of Criminal Justice.31, (3), 265-277.2003.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0047-2352(03)00007-2 (DOI)
  • Terrill, William. Police use of force and suspect resistance: The micro-process of the police-suspect encounter. Police Quarterly.6, (1), 2003.
    • ID: 10.1177/1098611102250584 (DOI)
  • Terrill, William, Paoline, Eugene A. III, Manning, Peter K.. Police culture and coercion. Criminology.41, (4), 1003-1034.2003.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2003.tb01012.x (DOI)
  • Terrill, William, Reisig, Michael D.. Neighborhood context and police use of force. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.40, (3), 291-321.2003.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022427803253800 (DOI)
  • Triplett, Ruth A., Gainey, Randy R., Sun, Ivan Y.. Institutional strength, social control, and neighborhood crime rates. Theoretical Criminology.7, (4), 439-467.2003.
    • ID: 10.1177/13624806030074003 (DOI)
  • Triplett, Ruth A., Sun, Ivan Y., Gainey, Randy R.. Social disorganization and the ability and willingness to enact control: A preliminary test. Western Criminology Review.6, (1), 89-103.2003.
  • Tyler, Tom R.. Procedural justice, legitimacy, and the effective rule of law. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research.Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 2003.
  • Engel, Robin Shepard. Patrol officer supervision in the community policing era. Journal of Criminal Justice.30, (1), 51-64.2002.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0047-2352(01)00122-2 (DOI)
  • Mastrofski, Stephen D., Reisig, Michael D., McCluskey, John D.. Police disrespect toward the public: An encounter-based analysis. Criminology.40, (3), 519-552.2002.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2002.tb00965.x (DOI)
  • Myers, Stephanie M.. Police Encounters with Juvenile Suspects: Explaining the Use of Authority and Provision of Support. Dissertation, State University of New York at Albany. 2002.
  • Reisig, Michael D., Parks, Roger B.. Satisfaction with Police--What Matters?. Research for Practice.NCJ 194077, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 2002.
    • ID: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/194077.pdf (URL)
  • Robinson, Amanda L.. Police Social Capital and Officer Performance of Community Policing. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms. 2002.
  • Spano, Richard. Potential Sources of Observer Bias in Observational Studies of Police. Dissertation, State University of New York. 2002.
  • Sun, Ivan Y.. Police officer attitudes toward peers, supervisors, and citizens: A comparison between field training officers and regular officers. American Journal of Criminal Justice.37, (1), 69-83.2002.
    • ID: 10.1007/BF02898971 (DOI)
  • Terrill, William, Mastrofski, Stephen D.. Situational and officer-based determinants of police coercion. Justice Quarterly.19, (2), 215-248.2002.
    • ID: 10.1080/07418820200095221 (DOI)
  • Terrill, William, McCluskey, John. Citizen complaints and problem officers. Journal of Criminal Justice.30, (2), 143-155.2002.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0047-2352(01)00132-5 | (DOI)
  • Terrill, William, McCluskey, John. Citizen complaints and problem officers: Examining officer behavior. Journal of Criminal Justice.30, (2), 143-155.2002.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0047-2352(01)00132-5 (DOI)
  • DeJong, Christina, Mastrofski, Stephen D., Parks, Roger B.. Patrol officers and problem solving: An application of expectancy theory. Justice Quarterly.18, (1), 31-61.2001.
    • ID: 10.1080/07418820100094811 (DOI)
  • Engel, Robin Shepard, Silver, Eric. Policing mentally disordered suspects: A reexamination of the criminalization hypothesis. Criminology.39, (2), 225-252.2001.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2001.tb00922.x (DOI)
  • Engle, Robin Shepard. Supervisory styles of patrol sergeants and lieutenants. Journal of Criminal Justice.29, (4), 341-355.2001.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0047-2352(01)00091-5 (DOI)
  • Paoline, Eugene A., III. Rethinking Police Culture: Officers' Occupational Attitudes. New York, NY: LFB Scholarly Publishing Company LLC. 2001.
  • Terrill, William. Police Coercion: Application of the Force Continuum. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC. 2001.
  • Engel, Robin Shepard. Effects of supervisory styles on patrol officer behavior. Police Quarterly.3, (3), 262-293.2000.
    • ID: 10.1177/1098611100003003003 (DOI)
  • Mastrofski, Stephen D., Snipes, Jeffrey B., Parks, Roger B., Maxwell, Christopher D.. The helping hand of the law: Police control of citizens on request. Criminology.38, (2), 307-342.2000.
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  • Paoline, Eugene A., III. Attitudes of Police: Implications for Police Culture. Dissertation, State University of New York at Albany. 2000.
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  • Parks, Roger B., Mastrofski, Stephen D., Reiss, Albert J., Jr., Worden, Robert E., Terrill, William C., DeJong, Christina, Snipes, Jeffrey E.. Indianapolis Project on Policing Neighborhoods: A Study of the Police and the Community. Final Report.Indianapolis, IN: Indianapolis Police Department. 1997.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Mastrofski, Stephen D.; Parks, Roger B.; Worden, Robert E.; Reiss, Albert J. Jr. (2002): Project on Policing Neighborhoods in Indianapolis, Indiana, and St. Petersburg, Florida, 1996-1997. Version 2. Version: v2. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03160.v2