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Detroit Area Study, 1995: Social Influence on Health: Stress, Racism, and Health Protective Resources

Version
v1
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
Creator
  • Jackson, James
  • Williams, David
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Detroit Area Studies Series
Publication Date
2002-08-16
Language
English
Free Keywords
alcohol consumption; anxiety; cities; coping; depression (psychology); drug use; economic behavior; employment; fear; health attitudes; health behavior; health care access; health status; life satisfaction; medical care; mental health; psychological wellbeing; racial attitudes; racial discrimination; racism; self medication; social influences; stress; work attitudes; work family relationship; worry
Description
  • Abstract

    This survey explored the ways in which social influences, such as stress and racism, affected health, and the impact these influences had on the respondents' outlook on life. Respondents were questioned about their health status and their exercise, smoking, sleeping, and dieting habits, as well as about diagnosed health problems and depression and their effects on daily activities. Respondents were also asked a series of questions regarding their employment status, type of job and whether it was a supervisory position, the racial makeup of their workgroup, their perceptions of their position and job, the likelihood of their finding another job, hassles experienced while at work, and whether they had any trouble balancing family and work. Another series of questions asked respondents whether they had been a victim of a serious physical attack or assault, robbery, or home burglary, if they had ever been unfairly searched, stopped, or questioned by police, why they felt they had been treated this way, and if they felt they had ever been treated unfairly by a teacher, landlord, or neighbor. Opinions were also solicited on the respondents' experience with depression and anxiety. Respondents were asked whether they felt it was possible to reach their goals, how satisfied they were with their present situation, how often they felt depressed and how long this feeling lasted, whether they lost weight or sleep due to this feeling, how this feeling of depression made them view themselves, how often and how long they were worried about things that were not likely to happen, how often they worried about non-serious things, and how they felt physically when they were anxious or depressed. Another set of questions queried respondents on alcohol and drug use. Respondents were asked how often they drank alcohol, the most they had to drink at one time, whether they had experienced any addiction to alcohol or experienced any emotional or psychological problems associated with drinking, whether they had any problem controlling their drinking, whether they had used drugs outside of a doctor's order, what types of drugs they had used, how often and in what type of situations they had used these drugs, and whether they had any addiction to the drugs. Respondents were also asked whether they had a regular doctor, whether they went to a doctor's office or clinic to seek medical attention, the last time they had gone for a checkup, how they were treated by staff at the visit, whether they trusted their doctor, the reasons why they did or did not receive medical attention, and whether they had health insurance. Respondents were also asked for their perceptions of differences between Blacks and whites, attitudes toward affirmative action with regard to employment, and their attitude toward interracial relationships. Another battery of questions queried respondents on any fears or phobias they had, such as a fear of animals, water, or visiting a doctor or dentist. Questions focused on the severity of these fears, how long they had had these fears, and how much these fears interfered in daily activities. A final set of questions gathered demographic information on respondents such as highest level of education completed, political affiliation, religious affiliation, level of religious participation, importance of religion, birth date, whether they owned their own home or rented, how much they spent on food each week, total family income for the year 1994, and the height and weight of respondents. More information about the Detroit Area Studies Project is available on this Web site.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Created online analysis version with question text..
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS1: DETROIT AREA STUDY, 1995: SOCIAL INFLUENCES ON HEALTH: STRESS, RACISM, AND HEALTH PROTECTIVE RESOURCES
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1995
  • Collection date: 1995
Geographic Coverage
  • Detroit
  • Michigan
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Adults aged 18 and older residing in households located in the Michigan counties of Oakland, Macomb, and Wayne.
Sampling
One respondent was selected at random from all eligible persons within each household.
Availability
Download
This study is freely available to ICPSR member institutions via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 3272 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Publications
  • Himmelstein, Mary S., Young, Danielle M., Sanchez, Diana T., Jackson, James S.. Vigilance in the discrimination-stress model for Black Americans. Psychology and Health.2015.
    • ID: 10.1080/08870446.2014.966104 (DOI)
  • Maddox, Torsheika. Professional women's well-being: The role of discrimination and occupational characteristics. Women and Health.53, (7), 706-729.2013.
    • ID: 10.1080/03630242.2013.822455 (DOI)
  • Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. Racial Disparities in Mental Health: A Data-Driven Learning Guide. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. 2009.
    • ID: 10.3886/racementalhealth (DOI)
  • Boardman, Jason D., Downey, Liam, Jackson, James S., Merrill, J. Bryce. Proximate industrial activity and psychological distress. Population and Environment.30, (1-2), 3-25.2008.
    • ID: 10.1007/s11111-008-0075-8 (DOI)
  • Brown, R. Khari. Denominational differences in White Christian housing-related racial attitudes. Journal of Religion and Society.10, 2008.
  • Winston, Charlotte R.. The Influence of Religiosity on Self-reported Health Status and Obtaining a Routine Physical Exam: An Examination of Black and White Differences. Master's thesis, Wayne State University. 2007.
  • Banks, Kira Hudson, Kohn-Wood, Laura P., Spencer, Michael. An Examination of the African American Experience of Everyday Discrimination and Symptoms of Psychological Distress. Community Mental Health Journal.42, (6), 555-570.2006.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10597-006-9052-9 (DOI)
  • Hersch, Joni. Skin-tone effects among African Americans: Perceptions and reality. American Economic Review.96, (2), 2512006.
    • ID: 10.1257/000282806777212071 (DOI)
  • Yamini-Benjamin, Yasmeen I.. Moving Toward a Better Understanding of Black Women's Work Adjustment: The Role of Perceived Discrimination and Self-efficacy in Predicting Job Satisfaction and Psychological Distress in Black Women. Dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara. 2006.
  • Boardman, Jason D.. Health pressimism Black and White adults: The role of interpersonal and institutional maltreatment. Social Science and Medicine.59, (12), 25232004.
  • Boardman, Jason D.. Stress and physical health: The role of neighborhoods as mediating and moderating mechanisms. Social Science and Medicine.58, (12), 24732004.
  • Boardman, Jason David. The Social Determinants of Health: Race, Resources, and Neighborhoods in the Detroit Tri-county Area. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin. 2002.
  • Moore, P.J., Adler, N.E., Williams, D.R., Jackson, James S.. Socioeconomic status and health: The role of sleep. Psychosomatic Medicine.64, (2), 337-344.2002.
  • Boardman, Jason D., Finch, Brian Karl, Ellison, Christopher G., Williams, David R., Jackson, James S.. Neighborhood disadvantage, stress, and drug use among adults. Journal of Health and Social Behavior.42, (2), 151 -2001.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3090175 (URL)
  • Brown, Tony N.. Measuring Self-Perceived Racial and Ethnic Discrimination in Social Surveys. Sociological Spectrum.21, (3), 377-392.2001.
    • ID: 10.1080/027321701300202046 (DOI)
  • Ellison, Christopher G., Boardman, Jason D., Williams, David R., Jackson, James S.. Religious involvement, stress, and mental health: Findings from the 1995 Detroit Area Study. Social Forces.80, (1), 215-249.2001.
    • ID: 10.1353/sof.2001.0063 (DOI)
  • Malat, Jennifer. Social distance and patients' rating of healthcare providers. Journal of Health and Social Behavior.42, (4), 360 -2001.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3090184 (URL)
  • Brand-Williams, Oralandar. Affirmative action foes slam study. Detroit News.(Metro), C6d -2000.
  • Malat, Jennifer R.. Racial differences in satisfaction with health care providers: An evaluation of three explanations. Dissertation, University of Michigan. 2000.
  • Miller, Gerald. Study: Racial Prejudice is Reason for Affirmative Action Resistance. Black Issues In Higher Education.17, (2), 14 -2000.
  • Schulz, A., Israel, B., Williams, D., Parker, E., Becker, A., James, S.. Social inequalities, stressors and self reported health status among African American and white women in the Detroit metropolitan area. Social Science and Medicine.51, (11), 1639-1653.2000.
  • Schulz, Amy, Williams, David, Israel, Barbara, Becker, Adam, Parker, Edith, James, Sherman A., Jackson, James S.. Unfair treatment, neighborhood effects, and mental health in the Detroit metropolitan area. Journal of Health and Social Behavior.41, (3), 314-332.2000.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2676323 (URL)
  • Malat, Jennifer R.. An Investigation of African American and White Differences in Satisfaction with Health Care Provider Behavior. Association Paper.American Sociological Association. 1999.
  • Sickel, A.E., Moore, P.J., Adler, N.E., Williams, David R., Jackson, James S.. The differential effects of sleep quality and quantity on the relationship between SES and health. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.896, 431-434.1999.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb08162.x (DOI)
  • Tyler, Delora Hall. 'Kick the stick' targets youth. Michigan Chronicle.C9 -1999.
  • Williams, David R., Jackson, James S., Brown, Tony N., Torres, Myriam, Forman, Tyrone A., Brown, Kendrick. Traditional and Contemporary Prejudice and Urban Whites' Support for Affirmative Action and Government Help. Social Problems.46, (4), 503-527.1999.
    • ID: 10.1525/sp.1999.46.4.03x0260z (DOI)
  • Williams, David R., Spencer, Michael S., Jackson, James S.. Race, stress and physical health. Self, social identity, and physical health: interdisciplinary explorations.New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 1999.
  • Williams, David R., Spencer, Michael S., Jackson, James S.. Race, stress, and physical health. Self, Social Identity, and Physical Health.New York: Oxford University Press. 1999.
  • Brown, Kendrick Tomorris. Skin tone bias and African-American well-being: A dual influence model approach. Dissertation, University of Michigan. 1998.
  • Brown, Tony Nicholas. The mental health consequences of racial stratification among African-Americans and White-Americans in Detroit, Michigan. Dissertation, University of Michigan. 1998.
  • Williams, David R., Yu, Yan, Jackson, James S.. Discrimination, race, and health. Proceedings of the Public Health Conference on Records and Statistics and Data User's Conference [CD-ROM #1].Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office. 1998.
  • Forman, Tyrone A.. Race, place, and discrimination. Perspectives on Social Problems. Vol. 9: Public Harassment.London: JAI. 1997.
  • Williams, David R., Yu, Yan, Jackson, James S., Anderson, Norman B.. Racial differences in physical and mental health: Socio-economic status, stress and discrimination. Journal of Health Psychology.2, (3), 335-351.1997.
    • ID: 10.1177/135910539700200305 (DOI)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Jackson, James; Williams, David (2002): Detroit Area Study, 1995: Social Influence on Health: Stress, Racism, and Health Protective Resources. Version 1. Detroit Area Studies Series. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03272.v1