Russian Election Study, 1995-1996

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • Colton, Timothy
  • Zimmerman, William
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • Carnegie Corporation
  • John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
Free Keywords
foreign policy; national elections; Parliamentary elections; political campaigns; political interest; political parties; political partisanship; politicians; presidential elections; public opinions; voter attitudes; voting behavior
  • Abstract

    This data collection provides information on the voting patterns of Russian citizens and their attitudes toward the electoral process, political parties, and individual politicians. Three panel surveys were completed through face-to-face interviews before and after the December 1995 parliamentary election and on the heels of the June 1996 presidential election. The surveys covered the following attitudinal and behavioral areas: (1) interest in politics, (2) exposure to campaign materials, (3) partisanship (both "feeling thermometers" and knowledge of party positions), (4) electoral choice, (5) opinion on the transition and its elements (privatization, economic liberalization, social safety net reform, political competition, freedom of speech and thought), (6) foreign policy views, and (7) views on democracy, government, and morality. Demographic information includes sex, age, marital status, family size, size of birth place and of current area of residence, education, nationality, linguistic group, religious affiliation and practice, occupation, detailed employment history, and individual and family income and expenses.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • 1995 / 1996
    Time period: 1995--1996
  • 1995 / 1996
    Collection date: 1995--1996
Geographic Coverage
  • Global
  • Russia
Sampled Universe
Russian citizens of voting age (18 years or older).
Multistage area probability sample.
Collection Mode
  • The surveys were conducted in Russian. The documentation for this study is available in English (codebook and data collection instrument) and in Russian (data collection instrument).

    The ASCII data file, SAS data definition statements, SPSS data definition statements, and SPSS portable file contain Cyrillic characters: all four files use the Windows Cyrillic 1251 character set.

    Most variables in the data definition statements and in the SPSS portable dataset do not have value labels. Please see the codebook to determine value labels for the specific variables.

    Many responses to open-ended questions are available only in Russian in text form in the data file--they were not recoded in any way.

    Some variables contain the undocumented codes "9," "99," and "999," which, according to information received, represent other responses that do not fit into the given categories.

    The codebook and the English-language version of the data collection instrument are provided by ICPSR as Portable Document Format (PDF) files. The Russian-language version of the data collection instrument is provided by the principal investigator as a PDF file.

    Produced by the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Sociology, Demoscope Group.

This study is freely available to ICPSR member institutions via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 3323 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • McCann, James A., Lawson, Chappell. Presidential campaigns and the knowledge gap in three transitional democracies. Political Research Quarterly.59, (1), 13-22.2006.
    • ID: 10.1177/106591290605900102 (DOI)
  • Karaman, Tatyana. Political efficacy and its antecedents in contemporary Russia. Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics.20, (2), 30-49.2004.
    • ID: 10.1080/1352327042000233742 (DOI)
  • McCann, James A., Lawson, Chappell. Presidential campaigns and the knowledge gap in three transitional democracies. Midwest Political Science Association Annual Meeting.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Colton, TJ. Parties, citizens and democractic consolidation in Russia. Ten Years after the Collapse of the Soviet Union: Lessons and Perspectives.Princeton, NJ. 2000.
  • Colton, Timothy J.. Transitional Citizens: Voters and What Influences them in the New Russia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 2000.
  • Colton, Timothy J., McFaul, Michael. Reinventing Russia's party of power: 'Unity' and the 1999 Duma election. Post Soviet Affairs.16, (3), 201-224.2000.
  • Colton, Timothy J.. Ideology and Russian mass politics: Uses of the left-right continnum. Elections and Voters in Post-Communist Russia.Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. 1998.
  • Colton, Timothy J.. Introduction: The 1993 election and the new Russian politics. Growing Pains: Russian Democracy and the Election of 1993.Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. 1998.
  • Colton, Timothy J.. Economics and voting in Russian. Post Soviet Affairs.12, (4), 289-317.1996.
  • Colton, Timothy J.. From the Parliamentary to the Presidential election: Russians get real about politics. Demokratizatsiya.4, (3), 371-379.1996.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15