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Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1994

Version
v8
Resource Type
Dataset : event/transaction data
Creator
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Other Title
  • Version 8 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
2002-09-25
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Language
English
Free Keywords
arrest records; conviction records; criminal histories; offenses; recidivism
Description
  • Abstract

    RECIDIVISM OF PRISONERS RELEASED IN 1994 is a database containing information on each of 38,624 sampled prisoners released from prisons in 15 states in 1994 and tracked for three years following their release. The majority of the database consists of information on each released prisoner's entire officially recorded criminal history (before and after the 1994 release). Sources for criminal history information are state and FBI automated RAP ("Records of Arrests and Prosecutions") sheets, which contain records of arrests, adjudications, and sentences. The study is the second major recidivism study conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics. The first study, RECIDIVISM AMONG RELEASED PRISONERS, 1983: [UNITED STATES] (ICPSR 8875), tracked over 16,000 prisoners released in 11 states in 1983 for three years. These two studies are the closest approximation to "national" recidivism studies in the United States. They are distinguished by their large sample size (over 16,000 released prisoners in the first study, 38,624 in the second), geographic breadth of coverage (11 states in the first study, 15 in the second), length of prospective tracking (three years from date of release in both studies), ability to track the movement of released prisoners across state boundaries (both studies), and multiple measures of recidivism (both studies). Demographic data include race, ethnicity, sex, and date of birth.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Created variable labels and/or value labels.; Standardized missing values.; Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • 1994 / 1997
    Time period: 1994--1997
  • 1997 / 2001
    Collection date: 1997--2001
Geographic Coverage
  • Arizona
  • California
  • Delaware
  • Florida
  • Illinois
  • Maryland
  • Michigan
  • Minnesota
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • North Carolina
  • Ohio
  • Oregon
  • Texas
  • United States
  • Virginia
Sampled Universe
Prisoners released during 1994 in the 15 states that the study covered. The 15 states account for about two-thirds of releases in the United States in a given year. Smallest Geographic Unit: state
Sampling
The following 15 state Departments of Corrections participated in the study: Arizona, California, Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Texas, and Virginia. These departments supplied Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) with information on each person released from prison in the state in 1994 (Note: Illinois releases are for fiscal year 1994 rather than calendar year 1994). These 15 states were chosen as a purposive sample, based on willingness to participate, the state's relative contribution to the overall national prison population, and the state's inclusion in the earlier study of recidivism conducted by BJS in 1983 (see ICPSR 8875). The 15 states supplied BJS with release records on 302,309 prisoners released in 1994, approximately two-thirds of all prisoners released in the nation. Using these records, the researchers drew a representative sample from each state, totaling 38,624 out of the 302,309 released prisoners, stratified by most serious conviction offense. More detailed information regarding sampling procedures can be found in the codebook that accompanies this data collection.
Note
2014-12-05 A minor change is made to the codebook.2012-01-12 For variable POTST, values for the state of New York were adjusted per the principal investigator.2011-03-08 All parts are being moved to restricted access and will be available only using the restricted access procedures.2009-02-09 Missing value codes were edited to correct for rounding and data entry errors.2007-03-02 The principal investigator revised the data so that there are 4,834 cases instead of 4,824 for values that are less than or equal to 90 for variable DCDV.2006-12-01 The principal investigator revised the description for variables RPRSD and RPRSITV in the codebook.2003-08-27 The principal investigator recoded some values in variables DCDV, RPRSD, RPRSITV, and RELTYP.2002-10-04 The principal investigator recoded some values (child victim age) in variable DCDV for 89 releases in the state of Virginia. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Availability
Download
One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 3355 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR03355.v7
Publications
  • Zarkin, Gary A., Cowell, Alexander J., Hicks, Katherine A., Mills, Michael J., Belenko, Steven, Dunlap, Laura J., Keyes, Vincent. Lifetime benefits and costs of diverting substance-abusing offenders from state prison. Crime and Delinquency.61, (6), 829-850.2015.
    • ID: 10.1177/0011128712461904 (DOI)
  • Budd, Kristen, Desmond, Scott A.. Sex offenders and sex crime recidivism: Investigating the role of sentence length and time served. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology.58, (12), 1481-1499.2014.
    • ID: 10.1177/0306624X13507421 (DOI)
  • Zhang, Yan, Zhang, Lening, Vaughn, Michael S.. Indeterminate and determinate sentencing models: A state-specific analysis of their effects on recidivism. Crime and Delinquency.60, (5), 693-715.2014.
    • ID: 10.1177/0011128709354047 (DOI)
  • Hamilton-Smith, Guy Padraic, Vogel, Matt. The violence of voicelessness: The impact of felony disenfranchisement on recidivism. Berkeley La Raza Law Journal.22, (2), 407-432.2012.
  • Marble, David H.. The Impact of Discretionary Parole Release on Offender Recidivism. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Dallas. 2012.
  • Rosenfeld, Richard, White, Helene R., Esbensen, Finn-Aage. Special categories of serious and violent offenders: Drug dealers, gang members, homicide offenders, and sex offenders. From Juvenile Delinquency to Adult Crime: Criminal Careers, Justice Policy, and Prevention.New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 2012.
  • Zarkin, Gary A., Cowell, Alexander J., Hicks, Katherine A., Mills, Michael J., Belenko, Steven, Dunlap, Laura J., Houser, Kimberly A., Keyes, Vince. Benefits and costs of substance abuse treatment programs for state prison inmates: Results from a lifetime simulation model. Health Economics.21, (6), 633-652.2012.
    • ID: 10.1002/hec.1735 (DOI)
  • Lave, Tamara R.. Controlling sexually violent predators: Continued incarceration at what cost?. New Criminal Law Review.14, (2), 213-280.2011.
    • ID: 10.1525/nclr.2011.14.2.213 (DOI)
  • Oliver, Brian E.. Recidivism: A Multi-Level Explanation. Dissertation, University of Missouri - St. Louis. 2011.
  • Miller, Adam. The Effects of Community Notification Laws on Sex Offender Recidivism Rates. Dissertation, Alliant International University. 2008.
  • Bhati, Avinash Singh. An Information Theoretic Method for Estimating the Number of Crimes Averted by Incapacitation. Research Report.NCJ 222720, Washington, DC: Justice Policy Center, Urban Institute. 2007.
    • ID: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411478_crimes_averted.pdf (URL)
  • Bhati, Avinash Singh. Estimating the number of crimes averted by incapacitation: An information theoretic approach . Journal of Quantitative Criminology.23, (4), 355-375.2007.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10940-007-9034-2 (DOI)
  • Bhati, Avinash Singh. Learning from Multiple Analogies: An Information Theoretic Framework for Predicting Criminal Recidivism. MPRA Paper No. 11850.. 2007.
  • Bhati, Avinash Singh, Piquero, Alex R.. Estimating the impact of incarceration on subsequent offending trajectories: Deterrent, criminogenic, or null effect?. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology.98, (1), 207-253.2007.
  • Fischer, Ryan G.. State Level Context and Offender Recidivism: The Impact of State Sentencing Structures. Dissertation, University of California, Irvine. 2007.
  • Ismailova, Zarona. Prison Education Program Participation and Recidivism. Thesis, Duquesne University. 2007.
  • Bhati, Avinash Singh. Studying the Effects of Incarceration on Offending Trajectories: An Information-theoretic Approach. Technical Report Submitted to the Data Resources Program (DRP).NCJ 216639, Washington, DC: Urban Institute [producer], United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice [distributor]. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/216639.pdf (URL)
  • Deschenes, Elizabeth Piper, Owen, Barbara, Crow, Jason. Recidivism Among Female Prisoners: Secondary Analysis of the 1994 BJS Recidivism Data Set. Final Report.NCJ 216950, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/216950.pdf (URL)
  • Miethe, Terance D., Mitchell, Ojmarrh, Olson, Jodi. Specialization and persistence in the arrest histories of sex offenders: A comparative analysis of alternative measures and offense types. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.43, (3), 204-229.2006.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022427806286564 (DOI)
  • Solomon, Amy L.. Does parole supervision work? Research findings and policy opportunities. APPA Perspectives.30, (2), 26-37.2006.
  • Rosenfeld, Richard, Wallman, Joel, Fornango, Robert. The contribution of ex-prisoners to crime rates. Prisoner Reentry and Crime in America.New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 2005.
  • Solomon, Amy L., Kachnowski, Vera, Bhati, Avinash. Does Parole Work?. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. 2005.
    • ID: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/311156_Does_Parole_Work.pdf (URL)
  • Durose, Matthew, Mumola, Christopher J.. Profile of Nonviolent Offenders Exiting State Prisons. Bureau of Justice Statistics Fact Sheet.NCJ 207081, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistices. 2004.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/pnoesp.pdf (URL)
  • Perry, Steven W.. American Indians and Crime: A BJS Statistical Profile, 1992-2002. NCJ 203097, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2004.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/aic02.pdf (URL)
  • Geter, Leon T.. Re-entry statistics now available on BJS web site. Corrections Today.65, (5), 66-67.2003.
  • Kruttschnitt, Candace, Gartner, Rosemary. Women's imprisonment. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research.Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 2003.
  • Langan, Patrick A., Schmitt, Erica L., Durose, Matthew R.. Recidivism of Sex Offenders Released from Prison in 1994. NCJ 198281, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2003.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/rsorp94.pdf (URL)
  • Langan, Patrick A., Levin, David J.. Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1994. NCJ 193427, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2002.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/rpr94.pdf (URL)
  • Langan, Patrick A., Levin, David J.. Recidivism of prisoners released in 1994. Federal Sentencing Reporter.15, (1), 58 -2002.
    • ID: 10.1525/fsr.2002.15.1.58 (DOI)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics (2002): Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1994. Version 8. Version: v8. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03355.v8