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Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in the United States, 1997-2000

Version
v1
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
Creator
  • Estes, Richard J. (University of Pennsylvania, School of Social Work, Center for the Study of Youth Policy)
  • Weiner, Neil Alan (University of Pennsylvania, School of Social Work, Center for the Study of Youth Policy)
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
2003-03-27
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice
Language
English
Free Keywords
child abuse; child pornography; children; exploitation; sex offender profiles; sex offenders; sexual abuse; sexual exploitation
Description
  • Abstract

    This project undertook the systematic collection of first-generation data concerning the nature, extent, and seriousness of child sexual exploitation (CSE) in the United States. The project was organized around the following research objectives: (1) identification of the nature, extent, and underlying causes of CSE and the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) occurring in the United States, (2) identification of those subgroups of children that were at the greatest risk of being sexually exploited, (3) identification of subgroups of adult perpetrators of sex crimes against children, and (4) identification of the modes of operation and other methods used by organized criminal units to recruit children into sexually exploitative activities. The study involved surveying senior staff members of nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and government organizations (GOs) in the United States known to be dealing with persons involved in the transnational trafficking of children for sexual purposes. Part 1 consists of survey data from nongovernment organizations. These were local child and family agencies serving runaway and homeless youth. Part 2 consists of survey data from government organizations. These organizations were divided into local, state, and federal agencies. Local organizations included municipal law enforcement, county law enforcement, prosecutors, public defenders, and corrections. State organizations included state child welfare directors, prosecutors, and public defenders. Federal organizations included the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal Public Defenders, Immigration and Naturalization Service, United States Attorneys, United States Customs, and the United States Postal Service. Variables in Parts 1 and 2 include the organization's city, state, and ZIP code, the type of services provided or type of law enforcement agency, how the agency was funded, the scope of the agency's service area, how much emphasis was placed on CSEC as a policy issue or a service issue, conditions that might influence the number of CSEC cases, how staff were trained to deal with CSEC cases, how victims were identified, the number of children that experienced child abuse, sexual abuse, pornography, or other exploitation in 1999 and 2000 by age and gender, methods of recruitment, family history of victims, gang involvement, and substance abuse history of victims.
  • Abstract

    The benefits of economic globalization, internationalization, and free trade have brought with them an unanticipated set of social problems. Among them is what appears to be a dramatic rise worldwide in the incidence of child exploitation. Among the most virulent forms of this exploitation is child sexual exploitation (CSE), including the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC). The extent of these problems in the United States has been unknown, although most experts dealing with CSEC regard it to be a serious problem in North America. This project undertook the systematic collection of first-generation data concerning the nature, extent, and seriousness of child sexual exploitation in the United States. The project was organized around the following research objectives: (1) identification of the nature, extent, and underlying causes of CSE and CSEC occurring in the United States, (2) identification of those subgroups of children that were at the greatest risk of being sexually exploited, (3) identification of subgroups of adult perpetrators of sex crimes against children, and (4) identification of the modes of operation and other methods used by organized criminal units to recruit children into sexually exploitative activities.
  • Abstract

    This study involved surveying senior staff members of nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and government organizations (GOs) in the United States known to be dealing with persons involved in the transnational trafficking of children for sexual purposes. Part 1 consists of survey data from nongovernment organizations. These were local child and family agencies serving runaway and homeless youth. Part 2 consists of survey data from government organizations. These organizations were divided into local, state, and federal agencies. Local organizations included municipal law enforcement, county law enforcement, prosecutors, public defenders, and corrections. State organizations included state child welfare directors, prosecutors, and public defenders. Federal organizations included the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal Public Defenders, Immigration and Naturalization Service, United States Attorneys, United States Customs, and the United States Postal Service. Surveys were originally mailed to the organizations. Researchers used additional mailings, telephone calls, and faxes to encourage responsiveness.
  • Abstract

    Variables in Parts 1 and 2 include the organization's city, state, and ZIP code, the type of services provided or type of law enforcement agency, how the agency was funded, the scope of the agency's service area, how much emphasis was placed on CSEC as a policy issue or a service issue, conditions that might influence the number of CSEC cases, how staff were trained to deal with CSEC cases, how victims were identified, the number of children that experienced child abuse, sexual abuse, pornography, or other exploitation in 1999 and 2000 by age and gender, methods of recruitment, family history of victims, gang involvement, and substance abuse history of victims.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Standardized missing values.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Presence of Common Scales: Several Likert-type scales were used.
  • Methods

    Response Rates: The response rate for Part 1 (nongovernmental organizations) was 22 percent. The response rate for Part 2 (governmental organizations) was 24 percent.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Nongovernment Organization Survey Data
    • DS2: Government Organization Survey Data
Temporal Coverage
  • 1997 / 2000
    Time period: 1997--2000
  • 2000-04 / 2000-12
    Collection date: 2000-04--2000-12
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Government and nongovernment agencies in the United States that dealt with persons involved in the transnational trafficking of children for sexual purposes.
Sampling
Stratified random sampling.
Collection Mode
  • (1) The data in this collection came from a larger project studying CSE and CSEC in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. ICPSR did not receive data pertaining to Canada or Mexico. (2) The principal investigators also used data from the NATIONAL INCIDENT-BASED REPORTING SYSTEM, 1998 (ICPSR 3031) and the UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS (UCR) AND FEDERAL INFORMATION PROCESSING STANDARDS (FIPS) STATE AND COUNTY GEOGRAPHIC CODES, 1990: UNITED STATES (ICPSR 2565) for this project. (3) The user guide, codebook, and data collection instruments are provided by ICPSR as Portable Document Format (PDF) files. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.

Note
2006-03-30 File UG3366.ALL.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.2006-03-30 File CQ3366.ALL.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (99-IJ-CX-0030).
Availability
Download
This study is freely available to the general public via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 3366 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Publications
  • McCabe, Kimberly A.. The role of internet service providers in cases of child pornography and child prostitution. Social Science Computer Review.26, (2), 247-251.2008.
    • ID: 10.1177/0894439307301438 (DOI)
  • Estes, Richard J., Weiner, Neil A.. The commercial sexual exploitation of children in the United States. Medical, Legal, and Social Science Aspects of Child Sexual Exploitation: A Comprehensive Review of Pornography, Prostitution, and Internet Crimes.St. Louis, MO: G.W. Medical Publishing, Inc.. 2005.
  • Dunn, Kathleen. Human Trafficking: Children or Commodity? International and Domestic Child Sex Trafficking. Thesis, University of Colorado at Denver, Heath Sciences Center. 2003.
  • Estes, Richard J.. The Silent Emergency: The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Prostituted Teens: More Than a Runaway Problem, Briefing Report.2002-2, Lansing, MI: Michigan State University, Institute for Children, Youth and Families. 2002.
    • ID: http://www.familyimpactseminars.org/s_mifis06c04.pdf (URL)
  • Estes, Richard J.. Sexual Exploitation of Children: A Working Guide to the Empirical Literature. NCJ 195561, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 2001.
    • ID: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/195561NCJRS.pdf (URL)
  • Estes, Richard J., Weiner, Neil Alan. The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in the U.S., Canada and Mexico. NCJ 218461, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania School of Social Work, Center for the Study of Youth Policy. 2001.
  • Estes, Richard J., Weiner, Neil Alan. The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in the U.S., Canada and Mexico, Executive Summary. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania School of Social Work, Center for the Study of Youth Policy. 2001.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Estes, Richard J.; Weiner, Neil Alan (2003): Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in the United States, 1997-2000. Version 1. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03366.v1