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Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study--Adolescent (DATOS-A), 1993-1995: [United States]

Resource Type
Dataset : clinical data, survey data
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse
Free Keywords
adolescents; AIDS; alcohol abuse; drug abuse; drug treatment; drug use; education; employment; health; HIV; mental health; sexual behavior; substance abuse treatment; tobacco use; treatment outcome; treatment programs
  • Abstract

    Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study - Adolescent (DATOS-A) was a multisite, prospective, community-based, longitudinal study of adolescents entering treatment. It was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of adolescent drug treatment by investigating the characteristics of the adolescent population, the structure and process of drug abuse treatment in adolescent programs, and the relationship of these factors with outcomes. Three major types or modalities of programs included in the study were chemical dependency or short-term inpatient (STI), therapeutic community or residential (RES), and outpatient drug-free (ODF). The adolescent battery of instruments included intake, intreatment, and follow-up questionnaires based largely on the DATOS adult study DRUG ABUSE TREATMENT OUTCOME STUDY (DATOS), 1991-1994: [UNITED STATES] (ICPSR 2258) instrument format, with considerable tailoring to the adolescent population. Clients entering treatment completed two comprehensive intake interviews (Intake 1 and Intake 2), approximately one week apart. This information is provided in Parts 1 and 2 of the data collection. These interviews were designed to obtain baseline data on drug use and other behaviors, such as illegal involvement, as well as information on background and demographic characteristics, education and training, mental health status, employment, income and expenditures, drug and alcohol dependence, health, religiosity and self-concept, and motivation and readiness for treatment. The one-, three-, and six-month intreatment interviews (Parts 3, 4, and 7) included items on treatment access, intreatment experience, and psychological functioning, as well as questions replicated from some of the domains in the Intake 1 and 2 questionnaires. The 12-month post-treatment follow-up interview (Part 5) included questions replicated from the previous interviews, and also included post-treatment status. Part 6 includes variables for time in treatment and interview availability indicators. The Measures Data (Part 8) were generated by using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Rev. 3rd ed., DSM-III-R) (American Psychiatric Association, 1987). The variables in Part 8 give either the DSM-III-R level of dependence to a drug category or they describe whether the subject meets the DSM-III-R standard for a particular disorder. The 12-Month Follow-up Urine Result data (Part 9) provide the results from urine sample tests that were given to a sample of subjects at the time of the 12-Month Follow-up Interview. The urine test was used to ascertain the nature and extent of bias in the self-reports of the respondents. Urine specimens were tested for eight categories of drugs (amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, cocaine metabolite, methaqualone, opiates, and phencyclidine). The drugs covered in the study were alcohol, tobacco, marijuana (hashish, THC), cocaine (including crack), heroin, narcotics or opiates such as morphine, codeine, Demerol, Dilaudid, and Talwin, illegal methadone, sedatives and tranquilizers such as barbiturates and depressants, amphetamines or other stimulants such as speed or diet pills, methamphetamines, LSD, PCP, and other hallucinogens or psychedelics, and inhalants such as glue, gasoline, paint thinner, and aerosol sprays. The study also included drug of choice, frequency, and route of administration.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed consistency checks.; Created variable labels and/or value labels.; Standardized missing values.; Created online analysis version with question text.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Response Rates: 2,974 of the clients who completed the intake interview were selected as eligible for the 12-month follow-up interview (reasons for ineligibility include incarceration, hospitalization, language barrier, and living outside of the metropolitan interviewing area). Of these eligible clients, 65.9 percent (n = 1,960) were located, 60 percent (n = 1,785) were successfully interviewed, .5 percent (n = 14) were deceased, and 5.4 percent (n = 161) refused to participate.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Intake 1 Data
    • DS2: Intake 2 Data
    • DS3: 1-Month Intreatment Data
    • DS4: 3-Month Intreatment Data
    • DS5: 12-Month Follow-Up Data
    • DS6: Time in Treatment and Interview Availability Indicators
    • DS7: 6-Month Intreatment Data
    • DS8: Measures Data
    • DS9: 12-Month Follow-Up Urine Result Data
    • DS10: Merged Data Files for Online Analysis
Temporal Coverage
  • 1993 / 1995
    Time period: 1993--1995
  • 1993 / 1995
    Collection date: 1993--1995
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Clients admitted to selected drug treatment programs in the United States in 1993-1995.
Six cities located in different sections of the United States were selected for the study because they each had a sufficient number of adolescent programs to support the research design. All six cities were medium to large metropolitan areas with established treatment systems. These cities were a subset of the sites for the DATOS adult study DRUG ABUSE TREATMENT OUTCOME STUDY (DATOS), 1991-1994: [UNITED STATES] (ICPSR 2258). Treatment programs were purposefully sampled and included (1) programs that treated an adolescent population separately from an adult population and (2) programs with projected patient admissions of at least five patients per month. Thirty-seven programs participated in the study. Respondents were sampled from among those admitted to treatment in 1993-1995. A total of 3,382 clients participated in the Intake interview. Of those, 2,258 participated in the one-month intreatment interview, 1,120 participated in the three-month intreatment interview, and 1,785 participated in the 12-month follow-up. The intake treatment sample was 74 percent male, 24 percent African American, and 21 percent Hispanic, with a mean age of between 15 and 16 years and a mean of 9 years education. Over half had some juvenile or criminal justice status at admission, two-thirds had no prior drug treatment experience, and the predominant drug-use patterns included weekly or daily use of marijuana alone or combined with alcohol. For the urine testing that was done at the 12 month follow-up, 25 percent of the respondents interviewed at follow-up were randomly selected to provide a urine sample for testing. A total of 464 respondents were asked to provide a specimen. Urine specimens suitable for testing were obtained for 417, and results were available for 362 respondents and analyzed at a NIDA-certified laboratory.
Collection Mode
  • face-to-face interview

    Users are advised that the data are most appropriately analyzed by modality.

    The Intake 1 and Intake 2 data files contain several continuous variables that denote age at the time of a certain event. For some of these variables, dichotomous codes 1 and 95 were also used for "don't know but under 15" and "don't know but 15 or older," respectively. Code 1 was also used for actual responses of "1 year old." Because it is unlikely that these events occurred at age 1, the code 1 was changed to 94 ("1 or don't know but under 15") in order to make it clearer that this code denotes something other than age 1. Users are cautioned that this may have an effect on any analyses performed using these variables.

    Users are advised that some DATOS-A publications exclude data from two sites that had low response rates. However, the public use files include data from all six sites.

    DATOS-A is an ongoing collaborative research effort of the National Development and Research Institutes at North Carolina (NDRI), Texas Christian University, the University of California at Los Angeles, and NIDA. For additional information, see the DATOS Web site.

    Conducted by the Coordinating DATOS Research Center at the National Development and Research Institutes (NDRI), North Carolina, and collaborating research centers at Texas Christian University and the University of California at Los Angeles, with data collected by the Research Triangle Institute.

2008-10-07 The question text was updated to enhance the clarity of each question by adding question stems and qualifying information. Also, minor typographical errors were corrected.2007-02-19 SAS transport (XPORT), SPSS portable, and Stata system files were added to Parts 1-5. Some corrections were made to the codebooks.2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.2004-06-23 Three datasets were added to the study: 6-Month Intreatment Data (Part 7), Measures Data (Part 8, and 12-Month Follow-Up Urine Result Data (Part 9). Corresponding documentation was prepared for each. Value labels were added for one variable (MUSA) in Part 5, 12-Month Follow-Up Data. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse (U01-DA10377 and N01DA-9-8233).
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 3404 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR03404.v1
  • Abdel-Salam, S., Gunter, W.D.. Therapeutic engagement as a predictor of retention in adolescent therapeutic community treatment. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse.23, (1), 49-57.2014.
    • ID: 10.1080/1067828X.2012.735556 (DOI)
  • Gunter, Whitney D., Abdel-Salam, Sami. Therapeutic engagement and posttreatment substance use in adolescent TC clients: Direct and indirect effects. Journal of Drug Issues.44, (1), 22-36.2014.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022042613491103 (DOI)
  • Joe, George W., Knight, Danica Kalling, Becan, Jennifer E., Flynn, Patrick M.. Recovery among adolescents: Models for post-treatment gains in drug abuse treatments. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment.46, (3), 362-373.2014.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jsat.2013.10.007 (DOI)
  • Moore, Julie C.. Historic Crime Type and Treatment Setting as Risk Factors for Substance Abuse Relapse by Adolescents. Dissertation, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology. 2014.
  • Abdel-Salam, S.. Self-control as a predictor of relapse and recidivism in adolescent therapeutic community treatment. Substance Use and Misuse.48, (1-2), 157-172.2013.
    • ID: 10.3109/10826084.2012.742544 (DOI)
  • Abdel-Salam, Sami. Self-control as a Predictor of Retention in, and Recidivism, and Relapse Following Therapeutic Community Treatment for Drug-abusing Adolescents. Dissertation, Temple University. 2011.
  • Hoeppner, Bettina B., Kahler, Christopher W., Jackson, Kristina M.. Evaluating the validity and utility of scaling alcohol consumption indices alongside AUD symptoms in treatmentnext term-seeking adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.115, (3), 196-204.2011.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.10.023 (DOI)
  • Jackson, Kristina M.. Progression through early drinking milestones in an adolescent treatment sample. Addiction.103, (3), 438-449.2010.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02800.x (DOI)
  • de Dios, Marcel A., Vaughan, Ellen L., Stanton, Cassandra A., Niaura, Raymond. Adolescent tobacco use and substance abuse treatment outcomes. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment.37, (1), 172009.
  • McCamant, Lynn E., Zani, Brigid G., McFarland, Bentson H., Gabriel, Roy M.. Prospective validation of substance abuse severity measures from administrative data. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.86, (1), 37-45.2007.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.04.016 (DOI)
  • de Dios, Marcel A.. Depression, Conduct Problems and Substance Abuse Treatment Outcomes Among Adolescents. University of Miami. 2007.
  • Grella, Christine E.. The Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Studies: Outcomes with adolescent substance abusers. Adolescent Substance Abuse: Intervention and Management.Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 2006.
  • Handelsman, Leonard, Stein, Judith A., Grella, Christine E.. Contrasting predictors of readiness for substance abuse treatment in adults and adolescents: A latent variable analysis of DATOS and DATOS-A participants. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.80, (1), 63-81.2005.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2005.03.022 (DOI)
  • Grella, Christine E., Joshi, Vandana, Hser, Yih-Ing. Effects of comorbidity on treatment processes and outcomes among adolescents in drug treatment programs. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse.13, (4), 13-31.2004.
    • ID: 10.1300/J029v13n04_02 (DOI)
  • Chung, Tammy, Martin, Christopher S., Grella, Christine E., Winters, Ken C., Abrantes, Ana M., Brown, Sandra A.. Course of alcohol problems in treated adolescents. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.27, (2), 253-261.2003.
    • ID: 10.1097/01.ALC.0000053009.66472.5E (DOI)
  • Grella, Christine E., Joshi, Vandana. Treatment processes and outcomes among adolescents with a history of abuse who are in drug treatment. Child Maltreatment.8, (1), 7-18.2003.
    • ID: 10.1177/1077559502239610 (DOI)
  • Hser, Yih-Ing, Grella, Christine E., Collins, Cyleste, Teruya, Cheryl. Drug-use initiation and conduct disorder among adolescents in drug treatment. Journal of Adolescence.26, (3), 331-345.2003.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0140-1971(03)00012-5 (DOI)
  • Dennis, M.L., Morral, A.R.. Symposium XVII. Advances in Adolescent Treatment Research. Problems of Drug Dependence, 2001: Proceedings of the 63rd Annual Scientific Meeting, the College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Inc..Bethesda, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2002.
  • Grella, Christine E.. Alcohol use outcomes at 1 year among adolescents in the drug abuse treatment outcomes studies (DATOS-A). Annual Research Society on Alcoholism Meeting.. 2002.
  • Martin, Kimberly R.. Adolescent Treatment Programs Reduce Drug Abuse, Produce Other Improvements. NIDA Notes.17, (1), 11-12.2002.
    • ID: 10.1151/v17i1ATPRDAPOI (DOI)
  • Wong, Marnie M., Hser, Yih-Ing, Grella, Christine E.. Compliance Among Adolescents During Drug Treatment. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse.12, (2), 13-31.2002.
    • ID: 10.1300/J029v12n02_02 (DOI)
  • Broome, K. M., Joe, G. W., & Simpson, D. D.. Engagement models for adolescents in DATOS-A. Journal of Adolescent Research.16, (6), 590-607.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/0743558401166005 (DOI)
  • Delany, Peter J., Broome, Kirk M., Flynn, Patrick M., Fletcher, Bennet W.. Treatment Service Patterns and Organizational Structures: An Analysis of Programs in DATOS-A. Journal of Adolescent Research.16, (6), 590-607.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/0743558401166004 (DOI)
  • Etheridge, Rose M., Smith, Jeff C., Rounds-Bryant, Jennifer L., Hubbard, Robert L.. Drug Abuse Treatment and Comprehensive Services for Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research.16, (6), 16-6.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/0743558401166003 (DOI)
  • Farabee, David, Shen, Haikang, Hser, Yih-Ing, Grella, Christine E., Anglin, M. Douglas. The effect of drug treatment on criminal behavior among adolescents in DATOS-A. Journal of Adolescent Research.16, (6), 679-696.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/0743558401166009 (DOI)
  • Fletcher, Bennett W., Grella, Christine E.. Preface to the JAR Special Issue: The Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies for Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research.16, (6), 537-544.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/0743558401166001 (DOI)
  • Galaif, Elisha R., Hser, Yih-Ing, Grella, Christine E., Joshi, Vendana. Prospective Risk Factors and Treatment Outcomes Among Adolescents in DATOS-A. Journal of Adolescent Research.16, (6), 661-678.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/0743558401166008 (DOI)
  • Hser, Y.I., Grella, C.E., Hubbard, R.L., Hsieh, S.C., Fletcher, B.W., Brown, B.S., Anglin, M.D.. An evaluation of drug treatments for adolescents in 4 US cities. Archives of General Psychiatry.58, (7), 689-695.2001.
    • ID: 10.1001/archpsyc.58.7.689 (DOI)
  • Joshi, Vandana, Hser, Yih-Ing, Grella, Christine E., Houlton, Roberta. Sex-Related HIV Risk Reduction Behavior Among Adolescents in DATOS-A. Journal of Adolescent Research.16, (6), 642-660.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/0743558401166007 (DOI)
  • Kristiansen, Patricia L., Hubbard, Robert L.. Methodological overview and research design for adolescents in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Journal of Adolescent Research.16, (6), 545-562.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/0743558401166002 (DOI)
  • Rounds-Bryant, Jennifer L., Staab, Jennifer. Patient Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes for African American, Hispanic, and White Adolescents in DATOS-A. Journal of Adolescent Research.16, (6), 624-641.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/0743558401166006 (DOI)
  • Grella, Christine, Hser, Yih-ing, Anglin, M.D., Joshi, Vandana, Rounds-Bryant, Jennifer. Comorbidity Among Adolescents in Drug Treatment: Treatment Processes and Outcomes from the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. College on Problems of Drug Dependence (CPDD) Annual Meeting.Acapulco. 1999.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Hillhouse, Maureen P.. Adolescent Substance Misuse: The Need for an Empirically Derived Typology. Dissertation, University of California. 1999.
  • Hser, Yih-Ing, Grella, Christine, Hsieh, Shih-Chao, Anglin, M. Douglas. National Evaluation of Drug Treatment for Adolescents. College on Problems of Drug Dependence (CPDD) Annual Meeting.Acapulco. 1999.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Powers, Keiko, Hser, Yih-Ing, Grella, Christine, Anglin, M.D.. Differential Assessment of Treatment Effectiveness on Property Crime and Drug Dealing among Adolescents. College on Problems of Drug Dependence (CPDD) Annual Meeting.Acapulco. 1999.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Rounds-Bryant, J.L., Kristiansen, P.L., Hubbard, R.L.. Drug abuse treatment outcome study of adolescents: A comparison of client characteristics and pretreatment behaviors in three treatment modalities. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.25, (4), 573-591.1999.
    • ID: 10.1081/ADA-100101880 (DOI)
  • Rounds-Bryant, Jennifer L., Kristiansen, Patricia L., Fairbank, John A., Hubbard, Robert L.. Substance use, mental disorders, abuse, and crime: Gender comparisons among a national sample of adolescent drug treatment clients. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse.7, (4), 19-34.1998.
    • ID: 10.1300/J029v07n04_02 (DOI)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 10 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse (2004): Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study--Adolescent (DATOS-A), 1993-1995: [United States]. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.