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Economic Distress, Community Context, and Intimate Violence in the United States, 1988 and 1994

Version
v0
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
Creator
  • Benson, Michael L. (University of Cincinnati)
  • Fox, Greer Litton (University of Tennessee)
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
2002-08-16
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice
Language
English
Free Keywords
battered women; demographic characteristics; domestic violence; economic conditions; households; neighborhood conditions; neighborhoods; social indicators
Description
  • Abstract

    Because of their restricted access to financial resources, couples undergoing economic distress are more likely to live in disadvantaged neighborhoods than are financially well-off couples. The link between individual economic distress and community-level economic disadvantage raises the possibility that these two conditions may combine or interact in important ways to influence the risk of intimate violence against women. This study examined whether the effect of economic distress on intimate violence was stronger in disadvantaged or advantaged neighborhoods or was unaffected by neighborhood conditions. This project was a secondary analysis of data drawn from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) and from the 1990 United States Census. From the NSFH, the researchers abstracted data on conflict and violence among couples, as well as data on their economic resources and well-being, the composition of the household in which the couple lived, and a large number of socio-demographic characteristics of the sample respondents. From the 1990 Census, the researchers abstracted tract-level data on the characteristics of the census tracts in which the NSFH respondents lived. Demographic information contains each respondent's race, sex, age, education, income, relationship status at Wave 1, marital status at Wave 1, cohabitation status, and number of children under 18. Using variables abstracted from both Wave 1 and Wave 2 of the NSFH and the 1990 Census, the researchers constructed new variables, including degree of financial worry and satisfaction for males and females, number of job strains, number of debts, changes in debts between Wave 1 and Wave 2, changes in income between Wave 1 and Wave 2, if there were drinking and drug problems in the household, if the female was injured, number of times the female was victimized, the seriousness of the violence, if the respondent at Wave 2 was still at the Wave 1 address, and levels of community disadvantage.
  • Abstract

    Because of their restricted access to financial resources, couples undergoing economic distress are more likely to live in disadvantaged neighborhoods than are financially well-off couples. The link between individual economic distress and community- level economic disadvantage raises the possibility that these two conditions may combine or interact in important ways to influence the risk of intimate violence against women. This study examined whether the effect of economic distress on intimate violence was stronger in disadvantaged or advantaged neighborhoods or unaffected by neighborhood conditions. The researchers intended to answer the following questions: (1) How do measures of community correlate with the prevalence, frequency, severity, and duration of intimate violence? (2) To what extent do different forms of economic distress influence the use of violence by men against women in intimate relationships? (3) How do changes in economic distress influence the initiation, maintenance, desistence, and escalation of violence by men in intimate relationships and to what extent do known precursors of violence mediate the impact of changes in economic distress on violence? (4) Does change over time in economic distress influence intimate violence independently of community context and household characteristics, or does it interact with these factors to produce varying risk levels for women located in different types of areas and households? (5) Are the effects of community context and economic distress on intimate violence more pronounced for minority women, or do they operate independently of race and other demographic characteristics?
  • Abstract

    The data used for this project came from the first and second waves of the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) conducted by the Center for Demography and Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison [NATIONAL SURVEY OF FAMILIES AND HOUSEHOLDS: WAVE I, 1987-1988, AND WAVE II, 1992-1994 (ICPSR 6906)]. The NSFH was designed to cover a broad range of family structures, processes, and relationships with a large enough sample to permit subgroup analysis. The first wave of the NSFH was conducted in 1988 and included a national probability sample of 13,017 respondents. Information was collected regarding the respondent's family living arrangements in childhood, marital and cohabiting experiences, education, fertility, alcohol use, employment history, kin contact, and economic and psychological well-being. Five years after the original interview, the sample from the first wave was reinterviewed. This project was a secondary analysis of data drawn from Waves 1 and 2 of the NSFH and from the 1990 United States Census. From the NSFH, the researchers abstracted data on conflict and violence among couples, as well as data on their economic resources and well-being, the composition of the household in which the couple lived, and a large number of socio-demographic characteristics of the sample respondents. From the 1990 Census, the researchers abstracted tract-level data on the characteristics of the census tracts in which the NSFH respondents lived.
  • Abstract

    Demographic information contains each respondent's race, sex, age, education, income, relationship status at Wave 1, marital status at Wave 1, cohabitation status, and number of children under 18. Using variables abstracted from both Wave 1 and Wave 2 of the NSFH and the 1990 Census, the researchers constructed new variables, including degree of financial worry and satisfaction for males and females, number of job strains, number of debts, changes in debts between Wave 1 and Wave 2, changes in income between Wave 1 and Wave 2, if there were drinking and drug problems in the household, if the female was injured, number of times the female was victimized, the seriousness of the violence, if the respondent at Wave 2 was still at the Wave 1 address, and levels of community disadvantage.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Standardized missing values.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Presence of Common Scales: Several Likert-type scales were used.
  • Methods

    Response Rates: Not applicable.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS1: Economic Distress, Community Context, and Intimate Violence in the United States, 1988 and 1994.
Temporal Coverage
  • Collection date: 1998
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Families and households in the United States.
Sampling
Not applicable.
Collection Mode
  • (1) More information about the NSFH is available from the original data producers at http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/nsfh. (2) The user guide and codebook are provided by ICPSR as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.

Note
Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (98-WT-VX-0011).
Availability
Delivery
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (help@icpsr.umich.edu).
Alternative Identifiers
  • 3410 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR03410.v1
Publications
  • Benson, Michael L., Fox, Greer L.. Concentrated disadvantage, economic distress, and violence against women in intimate relationships. Violence Against Women and Family Violence: Developments in Research, Practice, and Policy.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 2004.
    • ID: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/199709.pdf (URL)
  • Benson, Michael L., Fox, Greer Litton. When Violence Hits Home: How Economics and Neighborhood Play a Role. NIJ Research in Brief.NCJ 205004, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 2004.
    • ID: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/205004.pdf (URL)
  • Benson, Michael L., Wooldredge, John, Thistlethwaite, Amy B., Fox, Greer Litton. The correlation between race and domestic violence is confounded with community context. Social Problems.51, (3), 326-342.2004.
    • ID: 10.1525/sp.2004.51.3.326 (DOI)
  • Benson, Michael L., Fox, Greer L., DeMaris, Alfred, Van Wyk, Judy. Neighborhood disadvantage, individual economic distress and violence against women in intimate relationships. Journal of Quantitative Criminology.19, (3), 207-235.2003.
    • ID: 10.1023/A:1024930208331 (DOI)
  • DeMaris, Alfred, Benson, Michael L., Fox, Greer L., Hill, Terrence, Van Wyk, Judy. Distal and proximal factors in domestic violence: A test of an integrated model. Journal of Marriage and Family.65, (3), 652-667.2003.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2003.00652.x (DOI)
  • Van Wyck, Judy A., Benson, Michael L., Fox, Greer Litton, DeMaris, Alfred. Detangling individual-, partner-, and community-level correlates of partner violence. Crime and Delinquency.49, (3), 412-438.2003.
  • Van Wyk, Judy A., Benson, Michael L., Fox, Greer Litton, DeMaris, Alfred. Detangling Individual-, Partner-, and Community-Level Correlates of Partner Violence. NCJ 201172, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 2003.
  • Fox, Greer Litton, Benson, Michael L., DeMaris, Alfred A., Van Wyk, Judy. Economic distress and intimate violence: Testing family stress and resources theories. Journal of Marriage and Family.64, (3), 793-807.2002.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2002.00793.x (DOI)
  • Benson, Michael L., Fox, Greer L.. Economic Distress, Community Context and Intimate Violence: An Application and Extension of Social Disorganization Theory, Executive Summary. NCJ 193433, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 2001.
    • ID: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/193433.pdf (URL)
  • Benson, Michael L., Fox, Greer L.. Economic Distress, Community Context and Intimate Violence: An Application and Extension of Social Disorganization Theory, Final Report. NCJ 193434, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 2001.
    • ID: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/193434.pdf (URL)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Benson, Michael L.; Fox, Greer Litton (2002): Economic Distress, Community Context, and Intimate Violence in the United States, 1988 and 1994. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03410