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Uniform Crime Reporting Program Data [United States]: Police Employee (LEOKA) Data, 2000

Resource Type
Dataset : aggregate data
  • United States Department of Justice. Federal Bureau of Investigation
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Uniform Crime Reporting Program Data Series
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Free Keywords
arrests; assaults on police; crime rates; crime reporting; crime statistics; law enforcement; offenses; police deaths; police officers; Uniform Crime Reports
  • Abstract

    Since 1930, the Federal Bureau of Investigation has compiled the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) to serve as a periodic nationwide assessment of reported crimes not available elsewhere in the criminal justice system. Each year, this information is reported in four types of files: (1) Offenses Known and Clearances by Arrest, (2) Property Stolen and Recovered, (3) Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHR), and (4) Police Employee (LEOKA) Data. The Police Employee (LEOKA) Data provide information about law enforcement officers killed or assaulted (hence the acronym, LEOKA) in the line of duty. The variables created from the LEOKA forms provide in-depth information on the circumstances surrounding killings or assaults, including type of call answered, type of weapon used, and type of patrol the officers were on.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed consistency checks.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 2000
  • Collection date: 2000
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Law enforcement officers killed or assaulted as reported by law enforcement agencies.
Collection Mode
  • The codebook for this collection is provided as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.

2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics.
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 3445 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR03445.v1
  • Parker, Karen F., Hefner, M. Kristen. Intersections of race, gender, disadvantage, and violence: Applying intersectionality to the macro-level study of female homicide. Justice Quarterly.32, (2), 223-254.2015.
    • ID: 10.1080/07418825.2012.761719 (DOI)
  • Chalfin, Aaron, McCrary, Justin. Are U.S. cities underpoliced?: Theory and evidence. . 2013.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Fisher, Laura A., Callaway, David W., Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D.. Incidence of fatal airway obstruction in police officers feloniously killed in the line of duty: A 10-year retrospective analysis. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine.28, (5), 466-470.2013.
    • ID: 10.1017/S1049023X13008650 (DOI)
  • Gustafson, Joseph. Diversity in municipal police agencies: A national examination of minority hiring and promotion. Policing.36, (4), 2013.
    • ID: 10.1108/PIJPSM-01-2013-0005 (DOI)
  • Kercher, Cassandra, Swedler, David I., Pollack, Keshia M., Webster, Daniel W.. Homicides of law enforcement officers responding to domestic disturbance calls. Injury Prevention.19, (5), 331-335.2013.
    • ID: 10.1136/injuryprev-2012-040723 (DOI)
  • Owens, Emily Greene. COPS and cuffs. Lessons from Economics of Crime: What Reduces Offending?.Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press. 2013.
  • Baumer, Eric P., Rosenfeld, Richard, Wolff, Kevin T.. Expanding the scope of research on recent crime trends. NCJ 240204, . 2012.
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  • Mark, Ashley C., Wimberger, Nicole, Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D.. Incidence of tension pneumothorax in police officers feloniously killed in the line of duty: A ten-year retrospective analysis. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine.27, (1), 94-97.2012.
    • ID: 10.1017/S1049023X11006844 (DOI)
  • McCarty, William P., Ren, Ling, Zhao, Jihong. Determinants of police strength in large U.S. cities during the 1990s: A fixed-effects panel analysis. Crime and Delinquency.58, (3), 397-424.2012.
    • ID: 10.1177/0011128709336942 (DOI)
  • Reckdenwald, Amy, Parker, Karen F.. Understanding the change in male and female intimate partner homicide over time: A policy-and theory-relevant investigation. Feminist Criminology.7, (3), 167-195.2012.
    • ID: 10.1177/1557085111428445 (DOI)
  • Beans, James D.. Deaths of law enforcement officers by motor vehicle crashes: A review of FARS data for the years 1996 to 2007. Sheriff Magazine.62, (3), 22-25.2010.
  • Gustafson, Joseph L.. Diversity in Municipal Police Agencies: A National Examination of its Determinants and Effects. Dissertation, Northeastern University. 2010.
  • Kent, Stephanie L.. Killings of police in U.S. cities since 1980: An examination of environmental and political explanations. Homicide Studies.14, (1), 3-23.2010.
    • ID: 10.1177/1088767909353258 (DOI)
  • McGarrell, Edmund F., Corsaro, Nicholas, Hipple, Natalie Kroovand, Bynum, Timothy S.. Project Safe Neighborhoods and violent crime trends in U. S. cities. Journal of Quantitative Criminology.26, (2), 165-190.2010.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10940-010-9091-9 (DOI)
  • Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D.. Tactical medical skill requirements for law enforcement officers: A 10-year analysis of line-of-duty deaths. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine.25, (4), 346-352.2010.
    • ID: 10.1017/S1049023X00008323 (DOI)
  • King, William R.. Toward a life-course perspective of police organizations. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.46, (2), 213-244.2009.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022427808330874 (DOI)
  • Abbott, Melissa W.. Identification of risk factors associated with highway fatalities occurring to law enforcement professionals. Dissertation, West Virginia University. 2008.
  • Parker, Karen F., Reckdenwald, Amy. Women and crime in context: Examining the link between patriarchy and female offending across space. Feminist Criminology.3, (1), 5-24.2008.
    • ID: 10.1177/1557085107308456 (DOI)
  • Reckdenwald, Amy, Parker, Karen F.. The influence of gender inequality and marginalization on types of female offending. Homicide Studies.12, (2), 208-236.2008.
    • ID: 10.1177/1088767908314270 (DOI)
  • Reckdenwald, Amy. Examining Changes in Male and Female Intimate Partner Homicide Over Time, 1990-2000. Dissertation, University of Florida. 2008.
  • Wilson, Steve, Zhao, Jihong. Determining the correlates of police victimization: An analysis of organizational level factors on injurious assaults. Journal of Criminal Justice.36, (5), 461-468.2008.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2008.07.009 (DOI)
  • Evans, William N., Owens, Emily G.. COPS and crime. Journal of Public Economics.91, 181-201.2007.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jpubeco.2006.05.014 (DOI)
  • Fagan, Jeffrey, Zimring, Franklin E., Geller, Amanda. Capital punishment and capital murder: Market share and the deterrent effects of the death penalty. Texas Law Review.84, (7), 1803-1867.2006.
  • Hays, Stephanie A.. Women and Crime in Context: Examining the Linkages Between Structural Conditions and Female Offending Within the Context of Place. Thesis, University of Florida. 2005.
  • Wilson, Steve. Determining the Correlates of Police Victimization: An Analysis of Social Disorganization and Organizational Level Factors on Injurious Assaults. Dissertation, University of Nebraska. 2005.
  • Levitt, Steven D.. Understanding why crime fell in the 1990s: Four factors that explain the decline and six that do not. Journal of Economic Perspectives.18, (1), 163-190.2004.
    • ID: 10.1257/089533004773563485 (DOI)
  • Mencken, F. Carson, Nolan, James, Berhanu, Samuel. Juveniles, illicit drug activity, and homicides against police officers. Homicide Studies.8, (4), 327-349.2004.
    • ID: 10.1177/1088767903262597 (DOI)
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation. Crime in the United States - 2000. Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2000.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation. Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, 2000. Accessed 2/25/2008, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2000.
    • ID: (URL)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

United States Department of Justice. Federal Bureau of Investigation (2002): Uniform Crime Reporting Program Data [United States]: Police Employee (LEOKA) Data, 2000. Archival Version. Uniform Crime Reporting Program Data Series. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.