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National Evaluation of the Fighting Back Program: General Population Surveys, 1995-1999

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • Saxe, Leonard (Brandeis University)
  • Kadushin, Charles (Brandeis University)
  • Tighe, Elizabeth (Brandeis University)
  • Rindskopf, David (City University of New York)
  • Beveridge, Andrew (City University of New York)
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Free Keywords
addiction; alcohol; alcohol abuse; drug abuse; drug education; Hispanic origins; marijuana; mental health; substance abuse; treatment programs; victimization
  • Abstract

    This study was designed as part of a multi-method assessment of Fighting Back, a community-based drug abuse prevention program funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Fighting Back was implemented in 14 medium-sized, primarily urban communities in 12 states. To assess whether the Fighting Back program led to changes in alcohol and other drug (AOD) patterns and attitudes, the evaluation conducted general population surveys of residents aged 16-44 in 12 Fighting Back program communities and 29 comparison communities. Conducted in three waves -- 1995, 1997, and 1999 -- these surveys constitute the Community Survey (Part 1). To provide comparative national trend data, the National Survey (Part 2) was administered, concurrently with the second and third waves, to a national sample of the non-rural general population aged 16-44 using the same survey instrument as the Community Survey. The strategy for question design was to replicate previously validated questions from national surveys of substance use and dependency, including the National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, the National Comorbidity Study, and the Monitoring the Future study of American youth. Respondents reported their AOD use, their friends' AOD use, their attitudes about AOD use, how their friends felt about AOD use, and their perceptions of drug sales, crime, and other aspects of their neighborhood. In addition, the surveys collected information on volunteerism, crime victimization, health and mental health, knowledge and utilization of AOD treatment services, attendance in drug education courses or lectures in school, and opinions on marijuana legalization. Background variables include sex, race, Hispanic origin, household composition, marital/cohabitation status, education status and achievement, employment status, occupation, religious preference, religiosity, and income.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Community Survey Data
    • DS2: National Survey Data
Temporal Coverage
  • 1995 / 1999
    Time period: 1995--1999
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Community Survey: Persons aged 16-44 living in households within 12 Fighting Back communities and 29 comparison communities. National Survey: Persons aged 16-44 living in non-rural households within the 48 contiguous states.
Respondents were selected using random-digit dialing.
Collection Mode
  • The data maps are provided as ASCII files and the codebooks are provided by ICPSR as Portable Document Format (PDF) files.

Funding insitution(s): Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (037368).
One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 3801 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Ford, Julie M., Beveridge, Andrew E.. 'Bad' neighbors, fast food, 'sleazy' businesses and drug dealers: Relations between the location of licit and illicit businesses in the urban environment. Journal of Drug Issues.34, (1), 1-51.2004.
    • ID: 10.1177/002204260403400103 (DOI)
  • Ford, Julie, Kadushin, Charles. Between Sacral Belief and Moral Community: A Multidimensional Approach to the Relationship between Religion and Alcohol among Whites and Blacks. Sociological Forum.17, (2), 255-279.2002.
    • ID: 10.1023/A:1016089229972 (DOI)
  • Hallfors, D., Godette, D.. Will the 'principles of effectiveness' improve prevention practice? Early findings from a diffusion study. Health Education Research.17, (4), 461-470.2002.
    • ID: 10.1093/her/17.4.461 (DOI)
  • Hallfors, Denise, Cho, Hyunsan, Livert, David, Kadushin, Charles. Fighting back against substance abuse: Are community coalitions winning?. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.23, (4), 237-245.2002.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0749-3797(02)00511-1 (DOI)
  • Hallfors, Denise, Frame, L.. Substance Abuse. Child Development.New York: Macmillan Reference USA. 2002.
  • Hallfors, Denise, Iritani, Bonita. Local and state school-based substance use surveys. Evaluation Review.26, (4), 418-437.2002.
    • ID: 10.1177/0193841X02026004004 (DOI)
  • Ford, Julie. Substance use and self-reported mental health: The moderating effect of acquaintance use behavior among adults. Journal of Drug Issues.31, (2), 565-590.2001.
  • Hallfors, Denise, Sussman, S., Sporer, A.. Getting Results: Developing Safe and Healthy Kids, Update 2: Assessing the Effectiveness of Classroom-Based Prevention Programs. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education. 2001.
  • Lindholm, Matthew Scott. RWJ and the Grassroots: Race and Administration in the Social Construction of Inner City Communities. Dissertation, City University of New York. 2001.
  • Livert, David, Rindskopf, David, Saxe, Leonard, Stirratt, Mike. Using Multilevel Modeling in the Evaluation of Community-Based Treatment Programs. Multivariate Behavioral Research.36, (2), 155-183.2001.
    • ID: 10.1207/S15327906MBR3602_02 (DOI)
  • Saxe, Leonard, Kadushin, Charles, Beveridge, Andrew, Livert, David, Tighe, Elizabeth, Rindskopf, David, Ford, Julie, Brodsky, Archie. The visibility of illicit drugs: Implications for community-based drug control strategies. American Journal of Public Health.91, (12), 1987-1994.2001.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.91.12.1987 (DOI)
  • Beveridge, Andrew A., Kadushin, Charles, Saxe, Leonard, Rindskopf, David, Livert, David. Survey estimates of drug-use trends in urban communities: General principles and cautionary examples. Substance Use and Misuse.35, (6-8), 891-923.2000.
    • ID: 10.3109/10826080009148426 (DOI)
  • Hallfors, Denise, Khatapoush, Shereen, Kadushin, Charles, Watson, Kim, Saxe, Leonard. A comparison of paper vs computer-assisted self interview for school alcohol, tobacco, and other drug surveys. Evaluation and Program Planning.23, (2), 149-155.2000.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0149-7189(00)00011-2 (DOI)
  • Saxe, Leonard, Winick, C.. Substance abuse. Encyclopedia of Sociology.New York: Macmillan Reference USA. 2000.
  • Ryan, Dan, Jr.. The Ghosts of Organizations Past: Organizational Aspects of Urban Social Structure in the Implementation of the Fighting Back Initiative in New Haven, Connecticut 1989-1996. Dissertation, Yale University. 1999.
  • Saxe, Leonard, Tighe, Elizabeth. The view from Main Street and the view from 40,000 feet: Can a national evaluation understand local communities?. New Directions for Evaluation.83, 67-86.1999.
    • ID: 10.1002/ev.1146 (DOI)
  • Kadushin, Charles, Reber, Emily, Saxe, Leonard, Livert, David. The substance use system: Social and neighborhood environments associated with substance use and misuse. Substance Use and Misuse.33, (8), 1681-1710.1998.
    • ID: 10.3109/10826089809058950 (DOI)
  • Rindskopf, David, Saxe, Leonard. Zero effects in substance abuse programs: Avoiding false positives and false negatives in the evaluation of community-based programs. Evaluation Review.22, (1), 78-94.1998.
    • ID: 10.1177/0193841X9802200104 (DOI)
  • Saxe, Leonard, Reber, Emily, Hallfors, Denise, Kadushin, Charles, Jones, Delmos, Rindskopf, David, Beveridge, Andrew. Think globally, act locally: Assessing the impact of community-based substance abuse prevention. Evaluation and Program Planning.20, (3), 357-366.1997.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0149-7189(97)00015-3 (DOI)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Saxe, Leonard; Kadushin, Charles; Tighe, Elizabeth; Rindskopf, David; Beveridge, Andrew (2003): National Evaluation of the Fighting Back Program: General Population Surveys, 1995-1999. Version 1. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.