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Philadelphia Social History Project: Pennsylvania Abolition Society and Society of Friends Manuscript Census Schedules, 1838, 1847, 1856

Version
v1
Resource Type
Dataset : census/enumeration data
Creator
  • Hershberg, Theodore (University of Pennsylvania)
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Philadelphia Social History Project Series
Publication Date
2009-02-26
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health
Language
English
Free Keywords
African Americans; Black community; ex-slaves; housing; living conditions; nineteenth century; occupations; slavery
Description
  • Abstract

    Initially taken in 1838 to demonstrate the stability and significance of the African American community and to forestall the abrogation of African American voting rights, the Quaker and Abolitionist census of African Americans was continued in 1847 and 1856 and present an invaluable view of the mid-nineteenth century African American population of Philadelphia. Although these censuses list only household heads, providing aggregate information for other household members, and exclude the substantial number of African Americans living in white households, they provide data not found in the federal population schedules. When combined with the information on African Americans taken from the four federal censuses, they offer researchers a richly detailed view of Philadelphia's African American community spanning some forty years. The three censuses are not of equal inclusiveness or quality, however. The 1838 and 1847 enumerations cover only the "old" City of Philadelphia (river-to-river and from Vine to South Streets) and the immediate surrounding districts (Spring Garden, Northern Liberties, Southwark, Moyamensing, Kensington--1838, West Philadelphia--1847); the 1856 survey includes African Americans living throughout the newly enlarged city which, as today, conforms to the boundaries of Philadelphia County. In spite of this deficiency in areal coverage, the earlier censuses are superior historical documents. The 1838 and 1847 censuses contain data on a wide range of social and demographic variables describing the household indicating address, household size, occupation, whether members were born in Pennsylvania, status-at-birth, debts, taxes, number of children attending school, names of beneficial societies and churches (1838), property brought to Philadelphia from other states (1838), sex composition (1847), age structure (1847), literacy (1847), size of rooms and number of people per room (1847), and miscellaneous remarks (1847). While the 1856 census includes the household address and reports literacy, occupation, status-at-birth, and occasional passing remarks about individual households and their occupants, it excludes the other informational categories. Moreover, unlike the other two surveys, it lists the occupations of only higher status African Americans, excluding unskilled and semiskilled designations, and records the status-at-birth of adults only. Indeed, it even fails to provide data permitting the calculation of the size and age and sex structure of households. Variables for each household head and his household include (differ slightly by census year): name, sex, status-at-birth, occupation, wages, real and personal property, literacy, education, religion, membership in beneficial societies and temperance societies, taxes, rents, dwelling size, address, slave or free birth.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Created variable labels and/or value labels.; Created online analysis version with question text.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Pennsylvania Abolition Society: Census of 1838
    • DS2: Society of Friends: Census of 1847
    • DS3: Pennsylvania Abolition Society: Census of 1856
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1838
  • Time period: 1847
  • Time period: 1856
  • Collection date: 1968
Geographic Coverage
  • Pennsylvania
  • Philadelphia
  • United States
Sampled Universe
African Americans living in Philadelphia in 1838, 1847, and 1856. Smallest Geographic Unit: Street and house numbers
Collection Mode
  • Data Producer: Philadelphia Social History Project, University of Pennsylvania

    The data include X and Y geographic coordinates, which refer to a specific map used by the Philadelphia Social History Project at the University of Pennsylvania. Users interested in the map should contact the University of Pennsylvania libraries.

Note
Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health (MH 16621).
Availability
Download
This study is freely available to the general public via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 3805 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Publications
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    • ID: 10.1353/jsh.2003.0021 (DOI)
  • Hershberg, Theodore. Free Blacks in antebellum Philadelphia: A study of ex-slaves, freeborn, and socioeconomic decline. African Americans in Pennsylvania: Shifting Historical Perspectives.University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press. 1997.
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  • Goldin, Claudia. The economic status of women in the early republic: Quantitative evidence. Journal of Interdisciplinary History.XVI, (3), 375-404.1986.
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  • Condran, Gretchen A., Cheney, Rose A.. Mortality trends in Philadelphia: Age- and cause-specific death rates 1870-1930. Demography.19, (1), 97-123.1982.
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  • Condran, Gretchen, Seaman, Jeff. Linkage of the 1880-81 Philadelphia Death Register to the 1880 Manuscript Census: Procedures and preliminary results. Historical Methods Newsletter.73-84.1981.
  • Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr., Hershberg, Theodore, Modell, John. The origins of the female-headed Black family: The impact of the urban experience. Philadelphia: Work, Space, Family and Group Experience in the Nineteenth Century: Essays Toward and Interdisciplinary History of the City.New York: Oxford University Press. 1981.
  • Goldin, Claudia. Family strategies and the family economy in the late Nineteenth Century: The role of secondary workers. Philadelphia: Work, Space, Family and Group Experience in the Nineteenth Century: Essays Toward and Interdisciplinary History of the City.New York: Oxford University Press. 1981.
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  • Haines, Michael R.. Poverty, economic stress, and the family in a late Nineteenth-Century American city: Whites in Philadelphia, 1880. Philadelphia: Work, Space, Family and Group Experience in the Nineteenth Century: Essays Toward and Interdisciplinary History of the City.New York: Oxford University Press. 1981.
  • Hershberg, Theodore. Free Blacks in Antebellum Philadelphia: A study of ex-slaves, freeborn, and socioeconomic decline. Philadelphia: Work, Space, Family and Group Experience in the Nineteenth Century: Essays Toward and Interdisciplinary History of the City.New York: Oxford University Press. 1981.
  • Hershberg, Theodore. Philadelphia: Work, Space, Family and Group Experience in the Nineteenth Century: Essays Toward and Interdisciplinary History of the City. New York: Oxford University Press. 1981.
  • Hershberg, Theodore. The new urban history: Toward an interdisciplinary history of the city. Philadelphia: Work, Space, Family and Group Experience in the Nineteenth Century: Essays Toward and Interdisciplinary History of the City.New York: Oxford University Press. 1981.
  • Hershberg, Theodore, Williams, Henry. Mulattoes and Blacks: Intra-group color differences and social stratification in Nineteenth-Century Philadelphia. Philadelphia: Work, Space, Family and Group Experience in the Nineteenth Century: Essays Toward and Interdisciplinary History of the City.New York: Oxford University Press. 1981.
  • Hershberg, Theodore, Greenberg, Stephanie W., Burstein, Alan N., Yancey, William L., Ericksen, Eugene P.. A tale of three cities: Blacks, immigrants, and opportunity in Philadelphia, 1850-1880, 1930, 1970. Philadelphia: Work, Space, Family and Group Experience in the Nineteenth Century: Essays Toward and Interdisciplinary History of the City.New York: Oxford University Press. 1981.
  • Hershberg, Theodore, Light, Dale, Jr., Cox, Harold E., Greenfield, Richard R.. The 'journey-to-work': An empirical investigation of work, residence and transportation in Philadelphia between 1850 and 1880. Philadelphia: Work, Space, Family and Group Experience in the Nineteenth Century: Essays Toward and Interdisciplinary History of the City.New York: Oxford University Press. 1981.
  • Laurie, Bruce, Hershberg, Theodore, Alter, George. Immigrants and industry: The Philadelphia experience, 1850-1880. Philadelphia: Work, Space, Family and Group Experience in the Nineteenth Century: Essays Toward and Interdisciplinary History of the City.New York: Oxford University Press. 1981.
  • Laurie, Bruce, Schmitz, Mark. Manufacture and productivity: The making of an industrial base, Philadelphia, 1850-1880. Philadelphia: Work, Space, Family and Group Experience in the Nineteenth Century: Essays Toward and Interdisciplinary History of the City.New York: Oxford University Press. 1981.
  • Modell, John, Fursten berg, Frank F., Jr., Hershberg, Theodore. Social change and transitions to adulthood in historical perspective. Philadelphia: Work, Space, Family and Group Experience in the Nineteenth Century: Essays Toward and Interdisciplinary History of the City.New York: Oxford University Press. 1981.
  • Modell, John, Lees, Lynn H.. The Irish countryman urbanized: A comparative perspective on the famine migration. Philadelphia: Work, Space, Family and Group Experience in the Nineteenth Century: Essays Toward and Interdisciplinary History of the City.New York: Oxford University Press. 1981.
  • Schmitz, Mark. The elasticity of substitution in 19th-Century manufacturing. Explorations in Economic History.18, (3), 290-303.1981.
    • ID: 10.1016/0014-4983(81)90014-0 (DOI)
  • Williams, Henry. Appendix II: Data description. Philadelphia: Work, Space, Family and Group Experience in the Nineteenth Century: Essays Toward and Interdisciplinary History of the City.New York: Oxford University Press. 1981.
  • Gillette, Howard. The emergence of the modern metropolis: Philadelphia in the age of its consolidation. The Divided Metropolis: Social and Spatial Dimensions of Philadelphia, 1820-1940.Greenwich, CT: Greenwood Press. 1980.
  • Greenberg, Stephanie W.. The relationship between work and residence in an industrializing city: Philadelphia, 1880. The Divided Metropolis: Social and Spacial Dimensions of Philadelphia, 1820-1940.Greenwich, CT: Greenwood Press. 1980.
  • Haines, Michael R.. Fertility and marriage in a nineteenth-century industrial city: Philadelphia, 1850-1880. Journal of Economic History.40, (1), 151-158.1980.
    • ID: 10.1017/S002205070010467X (DOI)
  • Herschberg, Theodore. Interdisciplinary research at the Philadelphia Social History Project: Analytic goals, data and data manipulation strategies for the study of the Nineteenth Century industrial city. Historical Social Research: The Use of Historical and Process-Produced Data.Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta. 1980.
  • Ericksen, Eugene P. Yancey, William L.. Immigrants and their opportunities: Philadelphia, 1850-1936. American Academy for the Advancement of Science.Houston. 1979.
  • Fishbane, Richard B.. 'The shallow boast of cheapness': Public school teaching as a profession in Philadelphia, 1865-1890. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography.103, 66-84.1979.
  • Furstenberg, Frank, Jr., Strong, Douglas, Crawford, Albert G.. What happened when the Census was redone: An analysis of the recount of 1870 in Philadelphia. Sociology and Social Research .63, 475-505.1979.
  • Glassberg, Eudice. Work, wages, and the cost of living, ethnic differences and the poverty line, Philadelphia, 1880. Pennsylvania History.46, (1), 17-58.1979.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/27772568 (URL)
  • Goldin, Claudia. Household and market production of families in a late nineteenth century American city. Explorations in Economic History.16, (2), 111-131.1979.
    • ID: 10.1016/0014-4983(79)90010-X (DOI)
  • Hershberg, Theodore, Burstein, Alan N., Ericksen, Eugene P., Greenberg, Stephanie, Yancey, William L.. A tale of three cities: Blacks and immigrants in Philadelphia: 1850-1880, 1930 and 1970. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.441, (1), 55-81.1979.
    • ID: 10.1177/000271627944100106 (DOI)
  • Hershberg, Theodore, Burstein, Alan, Dockhorn, Robert. Verkettung von Daten: Record Linkage am Beispiel des Philadelphia Social History Project. Moderne Stadtgeschichte.Stuttgart: Klett Cotta. 1979.
  • Jable, J.Thomas. Philadelphia Social History Project: Implications for the study of sport. 7th annual meeting of the North American Society for Sport History.Austin, TX. 1979.
  • Fishbane, Richard B., Cutler, William W., III. An occupation in transition: Public school teaching in Philadelphia, 1850-1890. American Educational Studies Association Conference.Washington, DC. 1978.
  • Greenberg, Stephanie W.. Industrial location and ethnic residential patterns in an industrializing city: Philadelphia, 1880. Social Science History Association.Columbus, OH. 1978.
  • Goldin, Claudia. The family and household economy in a late Nineteenth-Century American city: Philadelphia, 1880. Social Science History Association.Ann Arbor, MI. 1977.
  • Burstein, Alan N.. Patterns of segregation and the residential experience. Historical Methods Newsletter.9, 105-113.1976.
  • Drobis, Susan M.. Occupation and residential differentiation: A historical application of cluster analysis. Historical Methods Newsletter.9, 114-134.1976.
    • ID: 10.1080/00182494.1976.10112637 (DOI)
  • Hershberg, Theodore, Burstein, Alan N., Dockhorn, Robert. Record linkage. Historical Methods Newsletter.9, (2-3), 1371976.
    • ID: 10.1080/00182494.1976.10112639 (DOI)
  • Hershberg, Theodore, Burstein, Alan N., Drobis, Susan M.. The historical study of urban space. Historical Methods Newsletter.9, (2/3), 99-136.1976.
    • ID: 10.1080/00182494.1976.10112636 (DOI)
  • Hershberg, Theodore, Dockhorn, Robert. Occupational Classification. Historical Methods Newsletter.9, (2-3), 59-98.1976.
    • ID: 10.1080/00182494.1976.10112635 (DOI)
  • Modell, John, Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr., Hershberg, Theodore. Social change and transitions to adulthood in historical perspective. Journal of Family History.1, (1), 7-32.1976.
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  • Sobotowski, Christopher. Software. Historical Methods Newsletter.9, (2-3), 1641976.
    • ID: 10.1080/00182494.1976.10112640 (DOI)
  • Furstenberg, Frank F. Jr., Hershberg, Theodore, Modell, John. The origins of the female-headed Black family: The impact of the urban experience. Journal of Interdisciplinary History.6, (2), 211-233.1975.
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  • Laurie, Bruce, Hershberg, Theodore, Alter, George. Immigrants and industry: The Philadelphia experience, 1850-1880. Journal of Social History.9, (2), 219-248.1975.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3786253 (URL)
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  • Hershberg, Theodore. Toward the historical study of ethnicity. Journal of Ethnic Studies.1, (1), 1-5.1973.
  • author unknown. Theory attacks long-held racial tenets. Chicago Daily Defender (Daily Edition) (1960-1973).(8), 1972.
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  • Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery. Statistics of the Colored People of Philadelphia. . 1856.
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Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Hershberg, Theodore (2009): Philadelphia Social History Project: Pennsylvania Abolition Society and Society of Friends Manuscript Census Schedules, 1838, 1847, 1856. Version 1. Philadelphia Social History Project Series. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03805.v1