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IEA Civic Education Study, 1999: [United States]

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA)
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • IEA Civic Education Study Series
Publication Date
Free Keywords
citizenship; civics; classroom environment; democracy; government; political participation; private schools; public schools
  • Abstract

    The IEA Civic Education Study is an international assessment of the civic knowledge and skills of 14-year-olds in 28 countries. It was conducted under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA): the IEA's International Steering Committee guided the research, the International Coordinating Center (ICC) coordinated the day-to-day operations, and a data processing center processed the data. The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) sponsored the 1999 IEA Civic Education Study in the United States. The assessment was administered to 2,811 students across 124 public and private schools nationwide at the beginning of ninth grade, the grade in which most 14-year-olds were enrolled at the time of the assessment (October 1999). Civic achievement in this study was measured by a total civic knowledge scale composed of two subscales: civic content and civic skills. Civic content refers to knowledge of content, such as characteristics of democracies, and civic skills refer to the interpretative skills needed to understand civic-related information (e.g., the skills needed to make sense of a newspaper article). In addition, survey items measured students' concepts of democracy, citizenship, and government, attitudes toward civic issues, and expected political participation. Students also answered questions on their background characteristics and on classroom climate. Questionnaires also solicited background information on school principals and teachers, and demographic information about the school and school programs related to civics education.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Created online analysis version with question text.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: School Data
    • DS2: Teacher Data
    • DS3: Student Data
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1999
  • Collection date: 1999-10
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
124 public and private schools in the United States
Collection Mode
  • To compute means, percentages, regression coefficients and their JRR standard errors, users are provided with SAS and SPSS macros. The four Jackknife SAS macros (,,, and are summarized in a single file called, and the four Jackknife SPSS macros (JackGen2.sps, JackReg2.sps, SampleJackGen.sps, and SampleJackREG.sps) are summarized in a single file called Jacknife.sps.

2016-03-30 Some enhancements were made to the data when it was added to the CivicLEADS archive. These enhancements include adding additional data files for the ICPSR full suite of statistical software packages (SPSS, Stata, SAS, R), creating SDA with variable groups for all files, adding question text to the data documentation, updating the existing document to current ICPSR formats, and adding the questionnaire as an additional document.2006-01-18 File UG3892.ALL.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.2006-01-18 File SP3892.JACK.PROG was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.2006-01-18 File SA3892.JACK.PROG was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.2006-01-18 File DOC3892.CSWLK.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 3892 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR03892.v2
  • Diemer, Matthew A., Rapa, Luke J.. Unraveling the complexity of critical consciousness, political efficacy, and political action among marginalized adolescents. Child Development.87, (1), 221-238.2016.
    • ID: 10.1111/cdev.12446 (DOI)
  • Barber, C., Torney-Purta, J., Wilkenfeld, B., Ross, J.. Immigrant and native-born adolescents' civic knowledge and attitudes in Sweden and the United States: Emergent citizenship within developmental niches. Research in Comparative and International Education.10, (1), 23-47.2015.
    • ID: 10.1177/1745499914567818 (DOI)
  • Barber, Carolyn, Sweetwood, Sachiko Ogata, King, Makini. Creating classroom-level measures of citizenship education climate. Learning Environments Research.18, 197-216.2015.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10984-015-9180-7 (DOI)
  • Zhang, Ting, Torney-Purta, Judith, Mislevy, Robert J.. Understanding civic cognitive assessment tasks: Associations between linguistic features and students' task performance. Citizenship Teaching and Learning.11, (1), 29-47.2015.
    • ID: 10.1386/ctl.11.1.29_1 (DOI)
  • Godfrey, E.B., Grayman, J.K.. Teaching citizens: the role of open classroom climate in fostering critical consciousness among youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.43, (11), 1801-1817.2014.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10964-013-0084-5 (DOI)
  • Baloglu Ugurlu, N.. Comparison of 8th grade American and Turkish students' perceptions about citizenship. Egitim ve Bilim.38, (170), 281-293.2013.
  • Barber, C., Fennelly, K., Torney-Purta, J.. Nationalism and support for immigrants' rights among adolescents in 25 countries. Applied Developmental Science.17, (2), 60-75.2013.
    • ID: 10.1080/10888691.2013.774870 (DOI)
  • Wilkenfeld, B., Torney-Purta, J.. A cross-context analysis of civic engagement Linking CIVED and US Census data. Journal of Social Science Education.11, (1), 64-80.2012.
    • ID: 10.4119/UNIBI/jsse-v11-i1-1192 (DOI)
  • Zhang, Ting, Torney-Purta, Judith, Barber, Carolyn. Students' conceptual knowledge and process skills in civic education: Identifying cognitive profiles and classroom correlates. Theory and Research in Social Education.40, (1), 1-34.2012.
    • ID: 10.1080/00933104.2012.649467 (DOI)
  • Isac, M.M., Maslowski, R., van der Werf, G.. Effective civic education: An educational effectiveness model for explaining students' civic knowledge. School Effectiveness and School Improvement.22, (3), 313-333.2011.
    • ID: 10.1080/09243453.2011.571542 (DOI)
  • Janmaat, J.G.. Ability grouping, segregation and civic competences among adolescents. International Sociology.26, (4), 455-482.2011.
    • ID: 10.1177/0268580910393044 (DOI)
  • Torney-Purta, Judith, Barber, Carolyn. Fostering young people’s support for participatory human rights through their developmental niches. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.81, (4), 473-481.2011.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1939-0025.2011.01113.x (DOI)
  • Homana, Gary A.. Communities of Practice for the Development of Adolescent Civic Engagement: An Empirical Study of Their Correlates in Australia and the United States. Dissertation, University of Maryland. 2009.
  • Torney-Purta, J., Wilkenfeld, B.S.. Paths to 21st Century Competencies Through Civic Education Classrooms: An Analysis of Survey Results from Ninth-Graders. A Technical Assistance Bulletin.Chicago, IL: American Bar Association Division for Public Education. 2009.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Campbell, David E.. Voice in the classroom: How an open classroom climate fosters political engagement among adolescents. Political Behavior.30, (4), 437-454.2008.
    • ID: 10.1007/s11109-008-9063-z (DOI)
  • Torney-Purta, J., Wilkenfeld, B., Barber, C.. How adolescents in 27 countries understand, support, and practice human rights. Journal of Social Issues.64, (4), 857-880.2008.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.2008.00592.x (DOI)
  • Torney-Purta, J., Barber, C., Wilkenfeld, B.. Latino adolescents’' civic development in the United States: Research results from the IEA Civic Education Study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.36, (2), 111-125.2007.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10964-006-9121-y (DOI)
  • Comber, Melissa K.. The Effects of Civic Education on Civic Skills. CIRCLE Fact Sheet.College Park, MD: University of Maryland. 2005.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Comber, Melissa Kovacs. Civic Skills and Civic Education: An Empirical Assessment. Dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park. 2005.
  • Torney-Purta, J., Barber, C.. Democratic school engagement and civic participation among European adolescents: Analysis of data from the IEA Civic Education Study. Journal of Social Science Education.4, (3), 13-27.2005.
    • ID: 10.4119/UNIBI/jsse-v4-i3-992 (DOI)
  • Torney-Purta, J., Richardson, W.K., Barber, C.H.. Teachers’ educational experience and confidence in relation to students’ civic knowledge across countries. International Journal of Citizenship and Teacher Education.1, (1), 32-57.2005.
  • Wilde, S.. Political and Citizenship Education: International Perspectives. Oxford, UK: Symposium Books. 2005.
  • Schulz, Wolfram, Sibberns, Heiko. IEA Civic Education Study Technical Report. Amsterdam: The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. 2004.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Hahn, Carole L.. Democratic values and citizen action: A view from US ninth graders. International Journal of Educational Research.39, (6), 633-642.2003.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.ijer.2004.07.010 (DOI)
  • Husfeldt, V., Nikolova, R.. Students' concepts of democracy. European Educational Research Journal.2, (3), 396-409.2003.
    • ID: 10.2304/eerj.2003.2.3.6 (DOI)
  • Mintrop, H.. The old and new face of civic education: Expert, teacher, and student views. European Educational Research Journal.2, (3), 446-454.2003.
    • ID: 10.2304/eerj.2003.2.3.9 (DOI)
  • Nikolova, Roumiana, Lehmann, Rainer H.. On the dimensionality of the cognitive test used in the IEA Civic Education Study: Analyses and implications. European Educational Research Journal.2, (3), 370-383.2003.
    • ID: 10.2304/eerj.2003.2.3.4 (DOI)
  • Papanastasiou, Constantinos, Koutselini, Mary, Papanastasiou, Elena. Introduction: The relationship between social context, social attitudes, democratic values and social actions. International Journal of Educational Research.39, (6), 519-524.2003.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.ijer.2004.07.001 (DOI)
  • Steiner-Khamsi, G., Torney-Purta, J., Schwille, J.. New Paradigms and Recurring Paradoxes in Education for Citizenship: An International Comparison. International Perspectives on Education and Society, Volume 5.JAI. 2002.
  • Torney, Purta, Judith, Richardson, Wendy Klandl. Trust in Government and Civic Engagement among Adolescents in Australia, England, Greece, Norway, and the United States. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2002.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Torney-Purta, Judith. Patterns in the civic knowledge, engagement, and attitudes of European adolescents: The IEA Civic Education Study. European Journal of Education.37, (2), 129-141.2002.
    • ID: 10.1111/1467-3435.00098 (DOI)
  • Baldi, Stephane, Perie, Marianne, Skidmore, Dan, Greenberg, Elizabeth, Hahn, Carole, Nelson, Dawn. What Democracy Means to Ninth-Graders: U.S. Results from the International IEA Civic Education Study. NCES 2001-096, Washington, DC: United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. 2001.
    • ID: (URL)
  • National Center for Education Statistics. Highlights of U.S. Results from the International IEA Civic Education Study (CivEd). NCES 2001-107.United States Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, . 2001.
    • ID: (URL)
  • National Center for Education Statistics. Highlights of U.S. results from the IEA Civic Education Study. Social Studies.92, (6), 274-275.2001.
    • ID: 10.1080/00377990109604016 (DOI)
  • Hahn, Carole L.. Challenges to civic education in the United States. Civic Education across Countries: Twenty-four National Case Studies from the IEA Civic Education Project.Amsterdam: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. 1999.
  • Torney-Purta, Judith, Schwille, John, Amadeo, Jo-Ann. Civic Education across Countries: Twenty-four National Case Studies from the IEA Civic Education Project. Amsterdam: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. 1999.
    • ID: (URL)

Update Metadata: 2016-03-30 | Issue Number: 7 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) (2004): IEA Civic Education Study, 1999: [United States]. Version 1. IEA Civic Education Study Series. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.