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American Customer Satisfaction Index, 1994

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • Fornell, Claes (University of Michigan Business School. National Quality Research Center)
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • American Customer Satisfaction Index Series
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • American Society for Quality
  • CFI Group USA, LLC
Free Keywords
advertising; consumer attitudes; consumer expectations; consumer expenditures; consumers; expectations; expenses; marketing; prices; products; purchasing; satisfaction
  • Abstract

    The American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) is a uniform and independent measure of household consumption experience. The ACSI tracks trends in customer satisfaction and provides valuable benchmarking insights into the consumer economy for companies, industry trade associations, and government agencies. It is based on modeling of customer evaluations of the quality of goods and services that are purchased in the United States and produced by both domestic and foreign firms that have substantial United States market shares. The ACSI model is a set of causal equations that link customer expectations, perceived quality, and perceived value to customer satisfaction. In turn, satisfaction is linked to consequences as defined by customer complaints and customer loyalty -- measured by price tolerance and customer retention. Customer expectations combine customers' experiences with a product or service and information about it via media, advertising, salespersons, and word-of-mouth. Customer expectations influence the evaluation of quality and forecast how well the product or service will perform. Perceived quality of a product or service is measured through questions on its overall quality, reliability, and the extent to which it meets the customer's needs. Perceived value is measured through questions on overall price given quality and overall quality given price. Customer complaints activity is measured as the percentage of respondents who reported a problem with the measured companies' product or service within a specified time frame. Satisfaction has an inverse relationship to customer complaints. Customer loyalty is measured through questions on the likelihood that customers will purchase a company's products or services at various price points. The ACSI is produced through a partnership of the University of Michigan Business School, the American Society for Quality (ASQ), and the international consulting firm, CFI Group. Background variables include age, education, number of family members, Hispanic origin, race, household income, sex, industry, and sector of the economy.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1994
  • 1994-05 / 1994-09
    Collection date: 1994-05--1994-09
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
American consumers aged 18 to 84 living in households with telephones in the continental United States.
Households were selected by random-digit dialing. Within households, the respondent selected was the adult with nearest birthday to date of interview who had purchased or consumed specific products and services within specified, recent time periods varying from three months to three years according to the product or service. The selected adult was interviewed to screen him/her for purchase and use of specific goods and services to qualify as customer eligible for interview. The probability sample selected to represent the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) for each company is based on approximately 250 customer interviews.
Collection Mode
  • For additional information, including related publications, visit the ACSI Web site at

2005-12-15 On 2005-08-15 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-12-15 to reflect these additions.2004-08-06 Corporate subscribers and major corporate and federal agency sponsors have been added to FUNDING.AGENCY1 field. SAMPLING field has been modified. Funding insitution(s): American Society for Quality (N004885). CFI Group USA, LLC.
Not available
This study is currently unavailable.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 3973 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Fornell, Claes (2004): American Customer Satisfaction Index, 1994. Version 1. American Customer Satisfaction Index Series. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.