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Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities, 2000

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities Series
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Free Keywords
census data; correctional facilities (adults); corrections; corrections management; inmate deaths; inmate populations; inmate programs; inmates; jails; prison administration; prison conditions; prison construction; prison overcrowding
  • Abstract

    This census is the sixth enumeration of state adult correctional institutions and the third of federal institutions sponsored by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and conducted by the Bureau of the Census. Earlier censuses were completed in 1974 (ICPSR 7811), 1979 (ICPSR 7852), 1984 (ICPSR 8444), 1990 (ICPSR 9908), and 1995 (ICPSR 6953). For each facility, information was provided on physical security, age, functions, capacity, court orders for specific conditions, one-day counts and average populations, race/ethnicity of inmates, inmate work assignments, inmate deaths, special inmate counts, assaults, and incidents caused by inmates.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 2000
  • Collection date: 2000
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
The facility universe was developed from the Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities. The list was revised using the 2000 American Correctional Association Directory and information obtained from State and private correctional administrators and the Federal Bureau of Prisons. The Census includes the following types of state, federal, and private correctional facilities intended for adults but sometimes also holding juveniles: prisons, penitentiaries, and correctional institutions, boot camps, community corrections, prison farms, reception, diagnostic and classification centers, road camps, forestry and conservation camps, youthful offender facilities (except in California), vocational training facilities, prison hospitals, and drug and alcohol treatment facilities for prisoners. State-operated local detention facilities in Alaska, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Rhode Island, and Vermont were also included. Facilities were included in the census if they: (1) were staffed with federal, state, local, or private employees, (2) housed primarily state or federal prisoners, (3) were physically, functionally, and administratively separate from other facilities, and (4) were in operation on June 30, 2000. Specifically excluded from the census were: (1) private facilities not primarily for state or federal inmates, (2) military facilities, (3) Immigration and Naturalization Service facilities, (4) Bureau of Indian Affairs facilities, (5) facilities operated by or for local governments, including those housing state prisoners, (6) facilities operated by the United States Marshals Service, (7) hospital wings and wards reserved for state prisoners, and (8) facilities that hold only juveniles.
Data were collected from 84 federal facilities and 1,584 non-federal facilities operating on June 30, 2000.
Collection Mode
  • The codebook is provided by ICPSR as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.

2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics.
This study is freely available to the general public via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 4021 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Burkhardt, Brett C., Jones, Alisha. Judicial intervention into prisons: Comparing private and public prisons from 1990 to 2005. Justice System Journal.2015.
    • ID: 10.1080/0098261X.2015.1062738 (DOI)
  • Schlanger, Margo. How prisoners' rights lawyers are preserving the role of the courts. University of Miami Law Review.2015.
  • Schlanger, Margo. Trends in prisoner litigation, as the PLRA enters adulthood. UC Irvine Law Review.2015.
  • Mitchell, Shamilya M.. Correctional Education Programs: Institutional Predictors of Availability. Thesis, University of North Dakota. 2014.
  • Crittenden, Courtney A.. Gender and Programming: A Comparison of Program Availability and Participation in U.S. Prisons for Men and Women. Dissertation, University of South Carolina. 2013.
  • Genter, Shaun, Hooks, Gregory, Clayton, Mosher. Prisons, jobs and privatization: The impact of prisons on employment growth in rural US counties, 1997-2004. Social Science Research.42, (3), 596-610.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2012.12.008 (DOI)
  • Steiner, Benjamin, Meade, Benjamin. Assessing the Relationship between Exposure to Violence and Inmate Maladjustment Within and Across State Correctional Facilities. Final Report.NCJ 243901, . 2013.
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  • Steiner, Benjamin, Wooldredge, John. Implications of different outcome measures for an understanding of inmate misconduct. Crime and Delinquency.59, (8), 1234-1262.2013.
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  • Burkhardt, Brett C.. Private Prisons in Public Discourse: Measuring Moral Legitimacy. Politics, Culture and Society Working Papers Series.2012-01, Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 2012.
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  • Makarios, Matthew D., Maahs, Jeff. Is private time quality time? A national private-public comparison of prison quality. Prison Journal.92, (3), 336-357.2012.
    • ID: 10.1177/0032885512448608 (DOI)
  • Meade, Benjamin. Examining the Effects of Religiosity and Religious Environments on Inmate Misconduct. Dissertation, University of South Carolina. 2012.
  • Phelps, Michelle S.. The place of punishment: Variation in the provision of inmate services staff across the punitive turn. Journal of Criminal Justice.40, (5), 348-357.2012.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2012.06.012 (DOI)
  • Dye, Meredith H.. The gender paradox in prison suicide rates. Women and Criminal Justice.21, (4), 290-307.2011.
    • ID: 10.1080/08974454.2011.609400 (DOI)
  • Phelps, Michelle S.. Rehabilitation in the punitive era: The gap between rhetoric and reality in U.S. prison programs. Law and Society Review.45, (1), 33-68.2011.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1540-5893.2011.00427.x (DOI)
  • Wilson, David M.. Crime, Punishment and Institutions. Dissertation, Clemson University. 2011.
  • Dye, Meredith Huey. Deprivation, importation, and prison suicide: Combined effects of institutional conditions and inmate composition.. Journal of Criminal Justice.28, (4), 796-806.2010.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2010.05.007 (DOI)
  • Hooks, Gregory, Mosher, Clayton, Genter, Shaun, Rotolo, Thomas, Lobao, Linda. Revisiting the impact of prison building on job growth: Education, incarceration, and county-level employment, 1976-2004. Social Science Quarterly.91, (1), 228-244.2010.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1540-6237.2010.00690.x (DOI)
  • Patterson, Evelyn J.. Measurement issues in corrections: Quality and compatibility of state correctional data in the United States, 1984-2000. Corrections Compendium.35, (3), 1-13.2010.
  • Wang, Xia, Mears, Daniel P.. Examining the direct and interactive effects of changes and ethnic threat on sentencing decisions. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.47, (4), 522-557.2010.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022427810375576 (DOI)
  • McCorkle, Richard, Lukemeyer, Anna. A comparison of private and state operated prisons on security and quality of confinement issues. Philadelphia, PA. 2009.
  • Parker, Karen F., Maggard, Scott R.. Making a difference: The impact of traditional male role models on drug sale activity and violence involving Black urban youth. Journal of Drug Issues.39, (3), 715-740.2009.
    • ID: 10.1177/002204260903900311 (DOI)
  • Reschenberg, Kristin. Understanding Differences in Male and Female Participation in Post-Secondary Correctional Education. Thesis, Southern Illinois University Carbondale. 2009.
  • Sadeghi, Leila. An Exploratory Analysis of Public and Private Correctional Education Programs. Dissertation, Rutgers. 2009.
  • Steiner, Benjamin. Assessing static and dynamic influences on inmate violence levels. Crime and Delinquency.55, (1), 134-161.2009.
    • ID: 10.1177/0011128707307218 (DOI)
  • Wooldredge, John, Steiner, Benjamin. Comparing methods for examining relationships between prison crowding and inmate violence. Justice Quarterly.26, (4), 795-826.2009.
    • ID: 10.1080/07418820802427841 (DOI)
  • McGeever, Kelly. Communities with correctional facilities: The effect on crime rates. St. Louis, MO. 2008.
  • Parker, Karen F., Reckdenwald, Amy. Concentrated disadvantage, traditional role models, and African-American juvenile violence. Criminology.46, (3), 711-735.2008.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2008.00119.x (DOI)
  • Steiner, Benjamin, Wooldredge, John. Comparing State- verses facility-level effects on crowding in U.S. correctional facilities. Crime and Delinquency.54, (2), 259-290.2008.
    • ID: 10.1177/0011128706296963 (DOI)
  • Wang, Xia. Criminal Justice Sentencing in Context: The Effect of Social Environment on Courtroom Decision-Making. Dissertation, Florida State University. 2008.
  • Klein, Steven, Tolbert, Michelle. Correctional education: Getting the data we need. Journal of Correctional Education.58, (3), 284-292.2007.
  • Patterson, Evelyn J.D.. A Demography of Incarceration: An Analysis of Measurement and Mortality in United States' State Correctional Facilities, 1985-1998. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. 2007.
  • Thivierge-Rikard, R.V., Thompson, M.S.. The association between aging inmate housing management models and non-geriatric health services in state correctional institutions. Journal of Aging and Social Policy.19, (4), 39-56.2007.
    • ID: 10.1300/J031v19n04_03 (DOI)
  • Kinney, Nancy T.. The implications for inmate rights of the voluntary provision of religious services. Criminal Justice Policy Review.17, (2), 188-201.2006.
    • ID: 10.1177/0887403405280943 (DOI)
  • Maggard, Scott R.. Structural Correlates of Race-Specific Drug Sales Arrests Over Time: Arrest Trajectories from 1980-2001. Dissertation, University of Florida. 2006.
  • Palla, Seri. Breaking the Rules: Using Theories of Deprivation and Importation to Analyze Inmate Behavior. Dissertation, American University. 2006.
  • Ralphs, David R.. Evaluating American Correctional Association Accreditation of Adult Correctional Institutions. Thesis, University of Texas at Arlington. 2006.
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  • Useem, Bert, Piehl, Anne M.. Prison buildup and disorder. Punishment and Society.8, (1), 87-115.2006.
    • ID: 10.1177/1462474506059141 (DOI)
  • Franklin, Cortney A., Fearn, Noelle E., Franklin, Travis W.. HIV/AIDS among female prison inmates: A public health concern. Californian Journal of Health Promotion.3, (2), 99-112.2005.
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  • (author unknown). Hepatitis Tests Popular. Corrections Today.66, (3), 25-25.2004.
  • Beck, Allen J., Maruschak, Laura M.. Hepatitis Testing and Treatment in State Prisons. Special Report.NCJ 199173, Washington, DC: United States National Institute of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2004.
  • Klein, Steven, Tolbert, Michelle, Bugarin, Rosio, Cataldi, Emily Forrest, Tauscheck, Gina. Correctional Education: Assessing the Status of Prison Programs and Information Needs. Washington, DC: United States Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools. 2004.
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  • Manderscheid, Ronald W., Gravesande, Aliya, Goldstrom, Ingrid D.. Growth of mental health services in state adult correctional facilities, 1988 to 2000. Psychiatric Services.55, (8), 869-872.2004.
    • ID: 10.1176/ (DOI)
  • Piehl, Anne M., Schlanger, Margo. Determinants of civil rights filings in federal district court by jail and prison inmates. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies.1, (1), 79-109.2004.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1740-1461.2004.00003.x (DOI)
  • Stephan, James J., Karberg, Jennifer C.. Census of Federal and State Correctional Facilities, 2000. NCJ 198272, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2003.
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  • Beck, Allen J., Harrison, Paige M.. Prisoners in 2000. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 188207, Washington, DC: United States of Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. 2001.
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  • Beck, Allen J., Maruschak, Laura M.. Mental Health Treatment in State Prisons, 2000, Special Report. NCJ 188215, United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2001.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics (2004): Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities, 2000. Version 1. Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities Series. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.