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National Samples from the Census of Manufacturing: 1850, 1860, and 1870

Resource Type
Dataset : aggregate data
  • Atack, Jeremy (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
  • Bateman, Fred (Indiana University)
  • Weiss, Thomas (University of Kansas)
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • National Science Foundation
  • University of Illinois. Campus Research Board
Free Keywords
census data; historical data; industrialization; manufacturing; nineteenth century; wages and salaries; workers
  • Abstract

    This collection presents information from the census of manufacturing in states and the District of Columbia. It was constructed from the STATE SAMPLES FROM THE CENSUS OF MANUFACTURING: 1850, 1860, AND 1870 (ICPSR 4071). The data were originally collected to paint a quantitative picture of industrialization in the United States without the need to weight the results. The data describe states and counties in terms of amount of capital invested and numbers of male, female, and child workers employed. Additional information includes daily wages for men, women, and children, annual wage bill, number of waterwheels and steam engines, and horsepower by water or steam.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: National Sample for 1850
    • DS2: National Sample for 1860
    • DS3: National Sample for 1870
Temporal Coverage
  • 1850 / 1870
    Time period: 1850--1870
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
United States and territories for which records were extant. Smallest Geographic Unit: city
Random samples from the U.S. Census.
Collection Mode
  • The basic data for 1850-1870 were collected by Fred Bateman and Thomas Weiss with underwriting from the National Science Foundation under grants GS-2450, GS-2456, SOC 75-18917 and SOC 75-20034. The 1850-1870 data have subsequently been supplemented and extended by Jeremy Atack and Bateman in order to permit creation of the national samples.

    These data can be analyzed at the national and/or regional level, but not the state level. For state-level analyses, use the data available as STATE SAMPLES FROM THE CENSUS OF MANUFACTURING: 1850, 1860, AND 1870 (ICPSR 4071).

    State data for 1880 are available as STATE SAMPLES FROM THE 1880 CENSUS OF MANUFACTURING (ICPSR 9384).

    National data for 1880 are available as NATIONAL SAMPLE FROM THE 1880 CENSUS OF MANUFACTURING (ICPSR 9385).

    The principal investigators request that the source of these data be credited and that authors using these data send a file copy of their work to Jeremy Atack at Vanderbilt University.

2006-03-30 File CB4048.ALL.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.2005-12-15 On 2005-08-15 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-12-15 to reflect these additions. Funding insitution(s): National Science Foundation (NSF: GS-2450, GS-2456, SOC 75-18917, SOC 75-20034). University of Illinois. Campus Research Board.
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 4048 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR04048.v1
  • Atack, Jeremy, Bateman, Fred. Nineteenth-Century U.S. Industrial Development through the Eyes of the Census of Manufactures. Historical Methods.32, (4), 177-188.1999.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615449909598939 (DOI)
  • Bateman, Fred, Weiss, Thomas Joseph. A Deplorable Scarcity: The Failure of Industrialization in the Slave Economy. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. 1981.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Atack, Jeremy; Bateman, Fred; Weiss, Thomas (2004): National Samples from the Census of Manufacturing: 1850, 1860, and 1870. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.