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Chicago Lawyers Survey, 1994-1995

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • Heinz, John P. (American Bar Foundation, and Northwestern University)
  • Laumann, Edward O. (American Bar Foundation, and University of Chicago)
  • Nelson, Robert L. (American Bar Foundation, and Northwestern University)
  • Sandefur, Rebecca (Stanford University)
  • Schnorr, Paul S. (American Bar Foundation)
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Chicago Lawyers Survey Series
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • American Bar Foundation
  • Chicago Bar Foundation
  • National Science Foundation
  • Northwestern University. Institute for Policy Research
Free Keywords
attorneys; career expectations; career history; memberships; occupational mobility; organizational behavior; organizational elites; professional associations; professional ethics; professionalism; social status; social stratification; values
  • Abstract

    Conducted as a partial replication of the CHICAGO LAWYERS SURVEY, 1975 (ICPSR 8218), this 1994-1995 survey sought to analyze the processes of change that transformed the practice of law and the market for legal services over the two decades between 1975 and 1995. Randomly selected Chicago, Illinois, lawyers were asked about, for example, the nature of their work, work settings, fields of practice, job satisfaction, career histories, professional commitment, client characteristics, and social and political values. Results revealed important changes in the legal profession between 1975 and 1995: women entered the profession in substantial numbers, new specialties were created, law firms and corporate legal departments grew dramatically, and in many organizations the practice of law became constrained by bureaucratic rules and procedures. Background information includes state of residence during high school, college or university attended, law school attended, law school class rank, political preference, degree of political party affiliation, religious preference, marital status, nationality, year of birth, income, race, zip code, number of children, work status of spouse, spouse's nationality, respondents' mother's occupation, respondents' mother's law school, respondents' father's occupation, and respondents' father's law school.
  • Methods

  • Methods

    Response Rates: 82 percent (simple random sample) -- 8 percent refused and 10 percent were not interviewed due to scheduling difficulties or illness, 71.4 percent (African American sample), 54 percent (Latino sample).
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • 1994 / 1995
    Time period: 1994--1995
  • 1994-06 / 1995-07
    Collection date: 1994-06--1995-07
Geographic Coverage
  • Chicago
  • Illinois
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Lawyers in good standing with the Illinois Attorney Registration and Disciplinary Commission who had a Chicago address and were under the age of 80 and alive in 1994, African American lawyers working in Chicago in 1994, and Latino lawyers working in Chicago in 1994.
There are three separate samples in the dataset: (1) A simple random sample was used. (2) African American respondents from the simple random sample were then asked to nominate other African American lawyers in each of a number of practice settings. A random sample stratified by practice setting was then selected from these nominations. (3) Latino lawyers were chosen by identifying every lawyer listed in Sullivan's directory with a last name that matched those on a list of Spanish surnames compiled by the United States Census. A random sample was then taken from that list.
Collection Mode
  • computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI), paper and pencil interview (PAPI)

2012-08-22 A Restricted Data Use Agreement form was added to the documentation files that can be downloaded from the study home page. Funding insitution(s): American Bar Foundation. Chicago Bar Foundation. National Science Foundation (SBR-9411515). Northwestern University. Institute for Policy Research.
One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 4100 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Heinz, John P., Laumann, Edward O., Nelson, Robert L., Sandefur, Rebecca L.. Urban Lawyers: The New Social Structure of the Bar. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 2005.
  • Kim, Harris, Laumann, Edward. Network endorsement and social stratification in the legal profession. Research in the Sociology of Organizations.20, 243-266.2003.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0733-558X(02)20009-9 (DOI)
  • Heinz, John P., Nelson, Robert L., Laumann, Edward O.. The Scale of Justice: Observations on the Transformation of Urban Law Practice. Annual Review of Sociology.27, 337-362 .2001.
    • ID: 10.1146/annurev.soc.27.1.337 (DOI)
  • Heinz, John P., Schnorr, Paul, Laumann, Edward O., Nelson, Robert L.. Lawyers' Roles in Voluntary Associations: Declining Social Capital?. Law and Social Inquiry.26, 597-629.2001.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1747-4469.2001.tb00190.x (DOI)
  • Kim, Harris. The Changing Patterns of Career Mobility in the Legal Profession: A Log-Linear Analysis of Chicago Lawyers, 1975 & 1995. Legal Professions: Work, Structure and Organization.Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. 2001.
  • Sandefur, Rebecca. Work and Honor in the Law: Prestige and the Division of Lawyers' Labor. American Sociological Review.66, (3), 382-403.2001.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Hull, Kathleen E., Nelson, Robert L.. Assimilation, Choice or Constraint? Testing Theories of Gender Differences in the Careers of Lawyers. Social Forces.79, (1), 229-264.2000.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Michelson, Ethan, Laumann, Edward, Heinz, John. The Changing Character of the Lawyer-Client Relationship: Evidence From Two Chicago Surveys. The Management of Durable Relations: Theoretical Models and Empirical Studies of Households and Organizations.Amsterdam, Netherlands: Thela Thesis Publications. 2000.
  • Heinz, John, Hull, Kathleen, Harter, Ava. Lawyers and Their Discontents: Findings From a Survey of the Chicago Bar. Indiana Law Journal.74 , 735 -758.1999.
  • Hull, Kathleen E.. Cross-Examining the Myth of Lawyers' Misery. Vanderbilt Law Review.52, (4), 971-983.1999.
  • Sandefur, Rebecca, Laumann, Edward, Heinz, John. The Changing Value of Social Capital in an Expanding Social System: Lawyers in the Chicago Bar, 1975 and 1995. Corporate Social Capital and Liability.Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic. 1999.
  • Heinz, John, Nelson, Robert, Laumann, Edward, Michelson, Ethan. The Changing Character of Lawyers' Work: Chicago in 1975 and 1995. Law and Society Review.32, (4), 751-775.1998.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Heinz, John, Laumann, Edward, Nelson, Robert, Schnorr, Paul. The Constituencies of Elite Urban Lawyers. Law and Society Review.31, (3), 441-472.1997.
    • ID: (URL)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-31 | Issue Number: 7 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Heinz, John P.; Laumann, Edward O.; Nelson, Robert L.; Sandefur, Rebecca; Schnorr, Paul S. (2006): Chicago Lawyers Survey, 1994-1995. Version 1. Chicago Lawyers Survey Series. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.