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National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1991

Version
v0
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
Creator
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series
Publication Date
1993-10-11
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Office of Public Health and Science
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
Language
English
Free Keywords
alcohol abuse; alcohol consumption; amphetamines; barbiturates; cocaine; crime; demographic characteristics; drug abuse; drug use; drugs; hallucinogens; heroin; households; inhalants; marijuana; methamphetamine; prescription drugs; sedatives; smoking; stimulants; substance abuse; substance abuse treatment; tobacco use; tranquilizers; youths
Description
  • Abstract

    This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates. Information is provided on the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, anabolic steroids, and tobacco among members of United States households aged 12 and older. Data are also provided on treatment for drug use and on illegal activities related to drug use. Questions include age at first use, as well as lifetime, annual, and past-month usage for the following drug classes: marijuana, inhalants, cocaine, hallucinogens, heroin, alcohol, tobacco, and nonmedical use of psychotherapeutics. Respondents were also asked about problems resulting from their use of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco, their perceptions of the risks involved, insurance coverage, and personal and family income sources and amounts. Demographic data include gender, race, ethnicity, educational level, job status, income level, household composition, and population density.
  • Methods

    Data were weighted based on the three stages of sampling that were used. Adjustments were made to compensate for nonresponse and sampling error. Adjustments also included trimming sample weights to reduce excessive weight variation and a post-stratification to Census population estimates. The final weight variable to be used in analysis is ANALWT.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed consistency checks.; Standardized missing values.; Created online analysis version with question text.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Response Rates: Strategies for ensuring high rates of participation resulted in an interview response rate of 84.2 percent. Of the 32,594 completed interviews, 16,628 were with Whites and other (i.e., non-Hispanic, non-Blacks), 8,050 were with (non-Hispanic) Blacks, and 7,916 were with Hispanics. Approximately 7 percent (2,190) of the interviews were conducted using the Spanish version of the questionnaire. The completed interviews represented a 96.5 percent completion rate for screening sample households and an 84.2 percent for interviewing sample individuals. The response rates for these three racial/ethnic groups were 82.3 percent for Whites and others, 85.1 percent for Blacks, and 87.3 percent for Hispanics.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS1: National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA), 1991
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1991
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
The noninstitutionalized civilian population of the United States, aged 12 and older.
Sampling
Multistage area sample design with oversampling of six Metropolitan Statistical Areas of special interest: Washington, DC, New York City, Miami, Chicago, Denver, and Los Angeles. Minorities and youths aged 12-17 were also oversampled.
Collection Mode
  • Data were collected by Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC, and prepared for release by National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, IL.

    For selected variables, statistical imputation was performed following logical imputation to replace missing responses. Unique code values (7, 8, or 9) were assigned to the recency-of-use variable when such logical imputation occurred. These code values are readily identifiable by the phrase "... LOGICALLY IMPUTED" in the code value descriptions. For those recency-of-use variables with missing data for which no indication of use of the drug could be found by examination of all relevant variables in the record, a code value of 91 ("Never Used") was assigned if there were one or more indications of such nonuse in the set of relevant variables.

    To protect the anonymity of respondents, all variables that could be used to identify individuals have been deleted from the public use file.

    For some drugs that have multiple names, questions regarding the use of that drug may be asked for each distinct name. For example, even though methamphetamine, methedrine and desoxyn are the same drug, their use was measured in three separate variables.

Note
2015-11-23 Covers for the PDF documentation were revised.2015-02-03 Created a separate Questionnaire PDF that was extracted from the Codebook PDF.2013-06-20 Updating xml file to include variable headings and subheadings.2008-08-05 New files were added. These files included one or more of the following: Stata setup, SAS transport (CPORT), SPSS system, Stata system, SAS supplemental syntax, and Stata supplemental syntax files, and tab-delimited ASCII data file. The variable CASEID was also added to the dataset.1999-05-12 SAS and SPSS data definition statements have been updated to include value labels and missing values sections, and the appendices have been added to the PDF codebook. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. Office of Public Health and Science (271-90-5401). United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Availability
Delivery
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (help@icpsr.umich.edu).
Alternative Identifiers
  • 6128 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR06128.v1
Publications
  • Prue, Bob. Prevalence of reported peyote use 1985-2010 effects of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1994. American Journal on Addictions.23, (2), 156-161.2014.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1521-0391.2013.12083.x (DOI)
  • Keyes, Katherine M., Miech, Richard. Age, period, and cohort effects in heavy episodic drinking in the US from 1985 to 2009. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.132, (1-2), 140-148.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.01.019 (DOI)
  • Miech, Richard A., London, Andrew S., Wilmoth, Janet M., Koester, Stephen. The effects of the military's antidrug policies over the life course: The case of past-year hallucinogen use. Substance Use and Misuse.48, (10), 837-853.2013.
    • ID: 10.3109/10826084.2013.800120 (DOI)
  • Miech, Richard, Bohnert, Amy, Heard, Kennon, Boardman, Jason. Increasing use of nonmedical analgesics among younger cohorts in the United States: A birth cohort effect. Journal of Adolescent Health.52, (1), 35-41.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.07.016 (DOI)
  • Miech, Richard, Koester, Stephen. Trends in U.S., past-year marijuana use from 1985 to 2009: An age-period-cohort analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.124, (3), 259-267.2012.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.01.020 (DOI)
  • Nguyen, Holly, Reuter, Peter. How risky is marijuana possession? Considering the role of age, race, and gender. Crime and Delinquency.58, (6), 879-910.2012.
    • ID: 10.1177/0011128712461122 (DOI)
  • Chen, Chiung M., Yi, Hsiao-ye, Williams, Gerald D., Faden, Vivian B.. Trends in Underage Drinking in the United States, 1991-2009. Washington, DC: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 2011.
    • ID: http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/surveillance91/Underage09.pdf (URL)
  • Chen, Xinguang, Lin, Feng, Stanton, Bonita, Zhang, Xun. APC modeling of smoking prevalence among US adolescents and young adults. American Journal of Health Behavior.35, (4), 416-427.2011.
    • ID: 10.5993/AJHB.35.4.4 (DOI)
  • Muhuri, Pradip K., Gfroerer, Joseph C.. Mortality associated with illegal drug use among adults in the United States. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.37, 155-164.2011.
    • ID: 10.3109/00952990.2011.553977 (DOI)
  • Chen, Chiung M., Yi, Hsiao-ye, Faden, Vivian B.. Trends in Underage Drinking in the U.S., 1991-2007. Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System Surveillance Reports #86.Washington, DC: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 2009.
  • Grucza, Richard A., Norberg, Karen E., Bierut, Laura J.. Binge drinking among youths and young adults in the United States: 1979-2006. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.48, (7), 692-702.2009.
    • ID: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181a2b32f (DOI)
  • The White House. National Drug Control Strategy: Data Supplement 2009. NCJ 225448, Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy. 2009.
    • ID: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs09/ndcs09_data_supl/09datasupplement.pdf (URL)
  • Zhang, Zhiwei, Cohen, Michael, Wright, Douglas. Intra-class Correlation Patterns of Cognitive and Behavioral Measures of Illicit Drug Uses and Acquisitions within Six Major Metropolitan Areas. Proceedings of Survey Research Method Section, Joint Statistical Meetings, Denver 2008.Alexandria, VA. 2008.
    • ID: http://www.amstat.org/sections/srms/Proceedings/y2008/Files/302693.pdf (URL)
  • Harder, Valerie S., Chilcoat, Howard D.. Cocaine use and educational achievement: Understanding a changing association over the past 2 decades. American Journal of Public Health.97, (10), 1790-1793.2007.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2006.091108 (DOI)
  • Roy, Suryadipta. Are Illegal Drugs Inferior Goods in the US?. Atlantic Economic Journal.35, (3), 303-314.2007.
    • ID: 10.1007/s11293-007-9071-0 (DOI)
  • Faden, Vivian B.. Trends in initiation of alcohol use in the United States 1975 to 2003 . Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.30, (6), 1011-1022.2006.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00115.x (DOI)
  • Pollack, Harold A., Reuter, Peter. Welfare receipt and substance-abuse treatment among low-income mothers: The impact of welfare reform. American Journal of Public Health.96, (11), 2024 -2006.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2004.061762 (DOI)
  • Sloboda, Zili. Chapter 12: Forging a relationship between drug abuse epidemiology and drug abuse prevention. Handbook of Drug Abuse Prevention: Theory, Science, and Practice.New York: Springer. 2006.
    • ID: 10.1007/0-387-35408-5_12 (DOI)
  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of Methodological Studies,1971-2005. Methodology Series M-6.SMA 06-4146, Rockville, MD: Office of Applied Studies. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/methodsHY/NSmethods.pdf (URL)
  • Golub, Andrew, Johnson, Bruce D., Dunlap, Eloise. The growth in marijuana use among American youths during the 1990s and the extent of blunt smoking. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse.4, (3-4), 1-21.2005.
    • ID: 10.1300/J233v04n03_01 (DOI)
  • Office of National Drug Control Policy. The National Drug Control Strategy: Data Supplement. NCJ 213692, Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President of the United States. 2005.
    • ID: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs06_data_supl/ (URL)
  • Roy, Suryadipta. Trade and Special Interest Politics, Enforcement Policy and Illegal Drugs: Three Essays. Dissertation, West Virginia University. 2005.
  • Braunschweig, Heidi Michelle. The aging of the 'baby boom' generation: The potential for increased alcohol use and the need for concern. Dissertation, Case Western Reserve University. 2004.
  • Faden, Vivian B., Fay, Michael P.. Trends in drinking among Americans age 18 and younger: 1975-2002. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.28, (9), 1388-1395.2004.
    • ID: 10.1097/01.ALC.0000139820.04539.BD (DOI)
  • Simoni-Wastila, Linda, Ritter, Grant, Strickler, Gail. Gender and Other Factors Associated with the Nonmedical Use of Abusable Prescription Drugs. Substance Use and Misuse.39, (1), 1-23.2004.
    • ID: 10.1081/JA-120027764 (DOI)
  • Simoni-Wastila, Linda, Strickler, Gail. Risk factors associated with problem use of prescription drugs. American Journal of Public Health.94, (2), 266-268.2004.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.94.2.266 (DOI)
  • Petronis, K.R., Anthony, J.C.. A different kind of contextual effect: Geographical clustering of cocaine incidence in the USA. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.57, (11), 893-900.2003.
    • ID: 10.1136/jech.57.11.893 (DOI)
  • Chen, Kevin, Kandel, Denise. Relationship between extent of cocaine use and dependence among adolescents and adults in the United States. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.68, (1), 65-85.2002.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0376-8716(02)00086-8 (DOI)
  • Golub, Andrew, Johnson, Bruce D.. Substance use progression and hard drug use in inner-city New York. Stages and Pathways of Drug Involvement: Examining the Gateway Hypothesis.Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 2002.
  • Golub, Andrew, Johnson, Bruce D.. The misuse of the 'Gateway Theory' in US policy on drug abuse control: A secondary analysis of the muddled deduction. International Journal of Drug Policy.13, (1), 5-19.2002.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0955-3959(01)00111-6 (DOI)
  • O'Malley, Patrick M., Johnston, Lloyd D.. Epidemiology of alcohol and other drug use among American college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol.63, (2), 23-39.2002.
  • Petronis, Kenneth Robert. Clusters of cocaine use in United States neighborhoods. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University. 2002.
  • Pollack, Harold A., Danziger, Sheldon, Seefeldt, Kristin S., Jayakody, Rukmalie. Substance use among welfare recipients. Social Service Review.76, (2), 256-274.2002.
    • ID: 10.1086/339669 (DOI)
  • Wilcox, Holly C., Wagner, Fernando A., Anthony, James C.. Exposure opportunity as a mechanism linking youth marijuana use to hallucinogen use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.66, (2), 127-135.2002.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0376-8716(01)00191-0 (DOI)
  • Farrelly, Matthew C., Bray, Jeremy W., Zarkin, Gary A., Wendling, B.W.. The joint demand for cigarettes and marijuana: Evidence from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. Journal of Health Economics.20, (1), 51-68.2001.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0167-6296(00)00067-9 (DOI)
  • Golub, Andrew, Johnson, Bruce D.. Variation in youthful risks of progression from alcohol and tobacco to marijuana and to hard drugs across generations. American Journal of Public Health.91, (2), 225-232.2001.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.91.2.225 (DOI)
  • Kandel, Denise B., Griesler, Pamela C., Lee, Gang, Davies, Mark, Schaffran, Christine. Parental influences on adolescent marijuana use and the baby boom generation: Findings from the 1979-1996 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. NHSDA Series.(SMA) 01-3531, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2001.
    • ID: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data/NHSDA/BabyBoom/TOC.htm (URL)
  • Saffer, Henry, Chaloupka, Frank J., Dave, Dhaval. State drug control spending and illicit drug participation. Contemporary Economic Policy.19, (2), 150-161.2001.
    • ID: 10.1093/cep/19.2.150 (DOI)
  • Van Etten, Michelle L., Anthony, James C.. Male-female differences in transitions from first drug opportunity to first use: Searching for subgroup variation by age, race, region, and urban status. Journal of Women's Health and Gender-Based Medicine.10, (8), 797-804.2001.
    • ID: 10.1089/15246090152636550 (DOI)
  • Bobashev, G.V., Anthony, James C.. Use of alternating logistic regression in studies of drug-use clustering. Substance Use and Misuse.35, (6-8), 1051-1073.2000.
    • ID: 10.3109/10826080009148432 (DOI)
  • Bray, Jeremy W., Zarkin, Gary A., Dennis, M.L., French, Michael T.. Symptoms of dependence, multiple substance use, and labor market outcomes. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.26, (1), 77-95.2000.
    • ID: 10.1081/ADA-100100592 (DOI)
  • Golub, Andrew L., Johnson, Bruce D., Labouvie, Erich. On correcting biases in self-reports of age at first substance use with repeated cross-section analysis. Journal of Quantitative Criminology.16, (1), 45-68.2000.
    • ID: 10.1023/A:1007573411129 (DOI)
  • Johnson, R.A., Gerstein, Dean R.. Age, period, and cohort effects in marijuana and alcohol incidence: United States females and males, 1961-1990. Substance Use and Misuse.35, (6-8), 925-948.2000.
    • ID: 10.3109/10826080009148427 (DOI)
  • Kandel, Denise B., Chen, Kevin. Extent of smoking and nicotine dependence in the United States: 1991-1993. Nicotine and Tobacco Research.2, (3), 263-274.2000.
  • Males, Mike. 'Kids and Guns': How Politicians, Experts, and the Press Fabricate Fear of Youth. Monroe, MN: Common Courage Press. 2000.
  • Parker, Keith D., Calhoun, Thomas, Weaver, Greg. Variables Associated With Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Multiethnic Comparison. Journal of Social Psychology.140, (1), 51-62.2000.
    • ID: 10.1080/00224540009600445 (DOI)
  • Petronis, Kenneth R., Anthony, James C.. Perceived risk of cocaine use and experience with cocaine: Do they cluster within US neighborhoods and cities?. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.57, (3), 183-192.2000.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0376-8716(99)00047-2 (DOI)
  • Bergen, Andrew W.. Cigarette smoking. Journal of the National Cancer Institute.91, (16), 1365-1375.1999.
    • ID: 10.1093/jnci/91.16.1365 (DOI)
  • Farrelly, Matthew C., Bray, Jeremy W., Zarkin, Gary A., Wendling, Brett W., Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo. The effects of prices and policies on the demand for marijuana: Evidence from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. NBER Working Paper Series.W6940, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 1999.
    • ID: http://papers.nber.org/papers/W6940.pdf (URL)
  • Hamilton, Jay Paul. Quantity Price Discounts in Illegal Drug Markets. Dissertation, University of California, Riverside. 1999.
  • Nielsen, Amie L.. Testing Sampson and Laub's life course theory: Age, race/ethnicity, and drunkenness. Deviant Behavior.20, (2), 129-151.1999.
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  • Obot, Isidore S., Anthony, James C.. Association of school dropout with recent and past injecting drug use among african american adults. Addictive Behaviors.24, (5), 701-705.1999.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0306-4603(98)00117-8 (DOI)
  • Obot, Isidore Silas, Hubbard, Scott, Anthony, James C.. Level of education and injecting drug use among African Americans. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.55, (1-2), 177-182.1999.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0376-8716(98)00168-9 (DOI)
  • Saffer, Henry, Chaloupka, Frank. The demand for illicit drugs. Economic Inquiry.37, (3), 401-411.1999.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1465-7295.1999.tb01439.x (DOI)
  • Van Etten, Michelle L., Anthony, James C.. Comparative epidemiology of initial drug opportunities and transitions to first use: Marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens and heroin. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.54, (2), 117-125.1999.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0376-8716(98)00151-3 (DOI)
  • Van Etten, Michelle L., Neumark, Yehuda D., Anthony, James C.. Male-female differences in the earliest stages of drug involvement. Addiction.94, (9), 1413-1419.1999.
  • Delva, J., Furr, C.D., Anthony, James C.. Personal characteristics associated with injecting drug use among Latinas in the United States of America. Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica / Pan American Journal of Public Health.4, (5), 341-345.1998.
  • Johnson, Robert A., Gerstein, Dean R.. Initiation of use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine, and other substances in U.S. birth cohorts since 1919. American Journal of Public Health.88, (1), 27-33.1998.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.88.1.27 (DOI)
  • Johnson, Robert A., Gerstein, Dean R., Rasinski, Kenneth A.. Adjusting survey estimates for response bias: An application to trends in alcohol and marijuana use. Public Opinion Quarterly.62, (3), 354-377.1998.
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  • McAuliffe, William E., Geller, Stephanie, LaBrie, Richard, Paletz, Susannah, Fournier, Elizabeth. Are telephone surveys suitable for studying substance abuse? Cost, administration, coverage and response rate issues. Journal of Drug Issues.28, (2), 455-482.1998.
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  • Gfroerer, Joseph C., Greenblatt, Janet C., Wright, Douglas A.. Substance use in the US college-age population: Differences according to educational status and living arrangement. American Journal of Public Health.87, (1), 62-65.1997.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.87.1.62 (DOI)
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  • Robertson, Elizabeth B., Donnermeyer, Joseph F.. Illegal drug use among rural adults: Mental health consequences and treatment utilization. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.23, (3), 467-484.1997.
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    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.86.11.1613 (DOI)
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Update Metadata: 2015-11-23 | Issue Number: 9 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse (1993): National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1991. Archival Version. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06128