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Southern Farms Study, 1860

Resource Type
Dataset : census/enumeration data
  • Parker, William N.
  • Gallman, Robert E.
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • National Science Foundation
Free Keywords
agricultural census; agricultural land; agricultural production; agricultural workers; agriculture; Antebellum South (USA); crops; economic conditions; farms; livestock; rural population; slave labor; slavery; Southern United States
  • Abstract

    This study presents 1860 data on population and farm production in 5,228 farms located in 405 major cotton-producing counties in the South. The data was compiled from the agriculture, slave, and population schedules of the 1860 United States manuscript Census. For each farm, variables describing farm land, machinery, crops, and livestock are included, as well as production figures for specific crops and types of livestock on the farm. The population variables tabulate the free and slave residents of each farm by sex, race, and age in five- or ten-year categories.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1860
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
All farms located in Southern counties that produced over 1,000 bales of cotton in 1860.
A total of 405 counties produced over 1,000 bales of cotton in 1860. A random bloc of five farms was selected from every 280 farms located in the target counties (i.e., a five-farm bloc from every 14th page of the manuscript Census). The resulting sample thus comprised 1.67 percent of all farms in the major cotton-growing counties of the 11 states forming the Confederacy.
Collection Mode
  • ICPSR added Variable 236, representing an identification number given to each farm, to the original data.

This study is freely available to ICPSR member institutions via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 7419 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Olmstead, Alan L., Rhode, Paul W.. Productivity Growth and the Regional Dynamics of Antebellum Southern Development. NBER Working Paper No.16494.Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2010.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Alexander, J. Trent, Condon, Sean, Digman, Jason Carl, Hacker, J. David. A Public Use Microdata Sample of the 1860 Census of Slave Inhabitants. Historical Methods.36, (1), 21-26.2003.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615440309601211 (DOI)
  • Field, Elizabeth B.. Free and Slave Labor in the Antebellum South: Perfect Substitutes or Different Inputs?. Review of Economics and Statistics.70, (4), 654-659.1988.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Field, Elizabeth B.. The Relative Efficiency of Slavery Revisited: A Translog Production Function Approach. American Economic Review.78, (3), 543-549.1988.
  • Wright, Gavin. The Political Economy of the Cotton South: Households, Markets, and Wealth in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Norton. 1978.
  • Foust, James D.. The Yeoman Farmer and Westward Expansion of U.S. Cotton Production. New York: Arno Press. 1975.
  • Fogel, Robert W., Engerman, Stanley L.. Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery. Boston: Little, Brown. 1974.
  • Fogel, Robert William, Engerman, Stanley L.. Time on the Cross: Evidence and Methods, A Supplement. Boston: Little, Brown. 1974.
  • Parker, William N.. The Structure of the Cotton Economy of the Antebellum South. Washington, DC: Agricultural History Society. 1970.
  • Wright, Gavin. The Economics of Cotton in the Antebellum South. Dissertation, Yale University. 1969.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Parker, William N.; Gallman, Robert E. (1984): Southern Farms Study, 1860. Version 1. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.