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Nations in Conflict: Data on National Growth and International Violence for Six European Major Powers, 1870-1914

Resource Type
Dataset : aggregate data
  • Choucri, Nazli
  • North, Robert C.
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • Ford Foundation
  • United States Department of the Navy. Office of Naval Research
  • United States Department of Defense. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
  • National Science Foundation
  • Stern Family Fund
Free Keywords
aggression; alliances; economic indicators; government expenditures; government revenues; history; industrial production; international conflict; international relations; military expenditures; military strength; national growth; nineteenth century; trade; twentieth century; violence; war
  • Abstract

    This study includes data collected to investigate the dynamics of conflict and warfare and the role played by national growth and expansion in these processes. Annual aggregate data were compiled for the period 1870-1914 on Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, and Austria-Hungary in eight categories: national size, colonial size, economic and productivity profile, commercial activity, government budget, alliances, violence, and conflicts of interest. Data in the first six categories were gathered from yearbooks and other historical sources. One of the alliance measures, adversary relationship, is a dummy variable indicating if a state was aligned or not. Variables in the last two categories are derived by subjective scaling procedures. The data are structured around individual years as units of analysis.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Standardized missing values.; Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • 1870 / 1914
    Time period: 1870--1914
Geographic Coverage
  • Austria
  • Europe
  • France
  • Germany
  • Global
  • Great Britain
  • Hungary
  • Italy
  • Russia
Sampled Universe
Six European states in 1870-1914: Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, and Austria-Hungary.
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 7425 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR07425.v1
  • Zuk, Gary. National growth and international conflict: A reevaluation of Choucri and North's thesis. Journal of Politics.47, (1), 269-281.1985.
  • Wallace, Michael D., Wilson, Judy M.. Non-Linear Arms Race Models. Journal of Peace Research.15, (2), 175-192.1978.
    • ID: 10.1177/002234337801500205 (DOI)
  • Choucri, Nazli, North, Robert C.. Nations in Conflict: National Growth and International Violence. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. 1975.
  • Choucri, Nazli. The Perceptual Base of Nonalignment. Journal of Conflict Resolution.13, (1), 57-74.1969.
    • ID: 10.1177/002200276901300104 (DOI)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Choucri, Nazli; North, Robert C. (1984): Nations in Conflict: Data on National Growth and International Violence for Six European Major Powers, 1870-1914. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.