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Current Population Survey: Annual Demographic File, 1968

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Current Population Survey Series
Publication Date
Free Keywords
census data; demographic characteristics; employment; Hispanic origins; households; income; job history; labor force; occupational mobility; population characteristics; population estimates; unemployment; working hours
  • Abstract

    This data collection supplies standard monthly labor force data as well as supplemental data on work experience, income, and migration. Comprehensive information is given on the employment status, occupation, and industry of persons 14 years old and older. Additional data are available concerning weeks worked and hours per week worked, reason not working full-time, total income and income components, and residence. Information on demographic characteristics, such as age, sex, race, educational attainment, marital status, veteran status, household relationship, and Hispanic origin, is available for each person in the household enumerated.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1968-03
  • Collection date: 1968-03
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Persons in the civilian noninstitutional population of the United States living in households and members of the armed forces living in civilian housing units in 1968.
A national probability sample was used in selecting housing units.
Collection Mode
  • (1) This hierarchical file contains 200,226 records. There are approximately 157 variables and two record types: family and person. Family records contain approximately 58 variables, and person records contain approximately 99 variables. (2) Each family and person record contains a weight, which must be used in any analysis. (3) This data file was obtained from the Data Program and Library Service (DPLS), University of Wisconsin. Some data management operations intended to store the data more efficiently were performed by DPLS. That organization also revised the original Census Bureau documentation. (4) The codebook is provided by ICPSR as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.

This study is freely available to ICPSR member institutions via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 7559 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Diprete, Thomas A., Buchmann, Claudia. Gender-specific trends in the value of education and the emerging gender gap in college completion. Demography.43, (1), 1-24.2006.
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  • Pencavel, John. A Cohort Analysis of the Association between Work Hours and Wages Among Men. Journal of Human Resources.37, (2), 251-274.2002.
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  • Arias, Omar, McMahon, Walter W.. Dynamic Rates of Return to Education in the U.S.. Economics of Education Review.20, (2), 121-138.2001.
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  • Moffitt, Robert A.. Welfare Benefits and Female Headship in U.S. Time Series. Discussion Paper.1219-01, Madison, WI: Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin-Madison. 2001.
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  • Black, Sandra, Juhn, Chinhui. The rise of female professionals: Are women responding to skill demand?. American Economic Review.90, (2), 450-455.2000.
    • ID: 10.1257/aer.90.2.450 (DOI)
  • Carrington, William J., McCue, Kristin, Pierce, Brooks. Using establishment size to measure the impact of Title VII and Affirmative Action. Journal of Human Resources.35, (3), 503-523.2000.
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  • Decker, Sandra L.. Medicaid, AFDC and Family Formation. Applied Economics.32, (15), 1947-1956.2000.
    • ID: 10.1080/00036840050155878 (DOI)
  • Moffitt, Robert A.. Welfare benefits and female headship in U.S. time series. American Economic Review.90, (2), 373-377.2000.
    • ID: 10.1257/aer.90.2.373 (DOI)
  • Poterba, James M., Venti, Steven F., Wise, David A.. Saver behavior and 401(k) retirement wealth. American Economic Review.90, (2), 297-302.2000.
    • ID: 10.1257/aer.90.2.297 (DOI)
  • Shih, Y.C.. Trends in full-time pharmacists' labor market characteristics. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association.40, (1), 26-35.2000.
  • Welch, Finis. Growth in women's relative wages and in inequality among men: One phenomenon or two?. American Economic Review.90, (2), 444-449.2000.
    • ID: 10.1257/aer.90.2.444 (DOI)
  • Abraham, Katharine G., Speltzer, James R., Stewart, Jay C.. Trends in worker pay: What do the data show? Why do different wage series tell different stories?. American Economic Review.89, (2), 34-39.1999.
    • ID: 10.1257/aer.89.2.34 (DOI)
  • Burtless, Gary. Squeezed for time?. Brookings Review.17, (4), 18-22.1999.
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  • Pryor, Fredric L., Shaffer, David L.. Who's Not Working and Why: Employment, Cognitive Skills, Wages, and the Changing U.S. Labor Market. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1999.
  • Buchinsky, Moshe. The dynamics of changes in the female wage distribution in the USA: A quantile regression approach. Journal of Applied Econometrics.13, (1), 1-30.1998.
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  • Chay, Kenneth Y.. The impact of federal civil rights policy on black economic progress: Evidence from the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972. Industrial and Labor Relations Review.51, (4), 608-632.1998.
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  • Findeis, Jill L., Jensen, Leif. Employment Opportunities in Rural Areas: Implications for Poverty in a Changing Policy Environment. American Journal of Agricultural Economics.80, (5), 1000-1007.1998.
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  • Gray, Jeffrey S.. Divorce-Law Changes, Household Bargaining, and Married Women's Labor Supply. American Economic Review.88, (3), 628-642.1998.
  • Macunovich, Diane J.. Relative cohort size and inequality in the United States. American Economic Review.88, (2), 259-264.1998.
  • Timmerman, Joe Allen, II. The response of race/gender groups to occupational characteristics: 1968-1993. Dissertation, Georgia State University. 1998.
  • Jacobs, Eva H.. Handbook of U.S. Labor Statistics: Employment, Earnings, Prices, Productivity, and Other Labor Data. U.S. Databook Series.Lanham: Bernan Press. 1997.
  • Juhn, Chinhui, Murphy, Kevin M.. Wage Inequality and Family Labor Supply. Journal of Labor Economics.15, (1), 72-97.1997.
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  • Blanchflower, David G., Oswald, Andrew J., Sanfey, Peter. Wages, Profits, and Rent-Sharing. Quarterly Journal of Economics.111, (1), 227-251.1996.
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  • Henretta, John C., Lee, Hyunkee. Cohort differences in men's late-life labor force participation. Work and Occupations.23, (2), 214-235.1996.
    • ID: 10.1177/0730888496023002005 (DOI)
  • Himmelstein, David U., Lewontin, James. Medical care employment in the United States, 1968 to 1993: The importance of health sector jobs for African Americans and women. American Journal of Public Health.86, (4), 525-528.1996.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.86.4.525 (DOI)
  • Himmelstein, David U., Lewontin, James P., Woolhandler, Steffie. Who administers? Who cares? Medical administrative and clinical employment in the United States and Canada. American Journal of Public Health.86, (2), 172-178.1996.
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  • Levenson, Alec R.. Recent Trends in Part-Time Employment. Contemporary Economic Policy.14, (4), 78-89.1996.
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  • Morris, Martina. Vive la Difference! Continuity and Change in the Gender Wage Gap, 1967-1987. Social Differentiation and Social Inequality: Essays in Honor of John Pock.Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 1996.
  • Bernhardt, Annette, Morris, Martina, Handcock, Mark S.. Women's Gains or Men's Losses? A Closer Look at the Shrinking Gender Gap in Earnings. American Journal of Sociology.101, (2), 302-328.1995.
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  • Borjas, George J., Ramey, Valerie A.. Foreign Competition, Market Power, and Wage Inequality. Quarterly Journal of Economics.110, (4), 1075-1110.1995.
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  • Browne, Irene. The Baby Boom and Trends in Poverty, 1967-1987. Social Forces.73, (3), 1071-1095.1995.
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  • Buchinsky, Moshe. Quantile regression, Box-Cox transformation model, and the W.S. wage structure, 1963-1987. Journal of Econometrics.65, (1), 109-154.1995.
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  • Karoly, Lynn A., Burtless, Gary. Demographic Change, Rising Earnings Inequality, and the Distribution of Personal Well-Being, 1959-1989. Demography.32, (3), 379-406.1995.
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  • Macunovich, Diane J.. The Butz-Ward fertility model in the light of more recent data. Journal of Human Resources.30, (2), 229-255.1995.
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  • Peracchi, Franco, Welch, Finis. How representative are matched cross-sections? Evidence from the Current Population Survey. Journal of Econometrics.68, (1), 153-179.1995.
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  • Wilson, Franklin D., Tienda, Marta, Wu, Lawrence. Race and unemployment: Labor market experiences of black and white men, 1968-1988. Work and Occupations.22, (3), 245-270.1995.
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  • Borjas, George J., Ramey, Valerie A.. Time-series evidence on the sources of trends in wage inequality. American Economic Review.84, 10-16.1994.
  • Hendricks, Wallace. Deregulation and labor earnings. Journal of Labor Research.15, (31), 207-234.1994.
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  • Larson, Tom, Ong, Paul M.. Imbalance in part-time employment. Journal of Economic Issues.28, (1), 187 -1994.
  • Moffitt, Robert A.. Welfare Effects on Female Headship With Area Effects. Journal of Human Resources.29, (2), 621-636.1994.
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  • Peracchi, Franco, Welch, Finis. Trends in labor force transitions of older men and women. Journal of Labor Economics.12, (2), 210-242.1994.
    • ID: 10.1086/298356 (DOI)
  • Raffalovich, Lawrence E.. Stability and Variability of Between-Occupation Earnings Inequality: A Segmented Labor-Market Approach. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility.13, 265-285.1994.
  • Blank, Rebecca M., Card, David. Poverty, income distribution, and growth: Are they still connected?. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity.(2), 285-339.1993.
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  • Burkhauser, Richard V., Haveman, Robert H., Wolfe, Barbara L.. How people with disabilities fare when pulic policies change. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management.12, (2), 251-269.1993.
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  • Cancian, Maria, Danziger, Sheldon, Gottschalk, Peter. The changing contributions of men and women to the level of family income, 1968-1988. Poverty and Prosperity in the U.S.A. the late twentieth century.New York: St. Martin's. 1993.
  • Cancian, Maria, Danziger, Sheldon, Gottschalk, Peter. Working wives and family income inequality among married couples. Uneven Tides: Rising Inequality in America.New York: Russell Sage. 1993.
  • Easterlin, Richard A., Schaeffer, Christine M., Macunovich, Diane J.. Will the Baby Boomers Be Less Well Off Than Their Parents? Income, Wealth, and Family Circumstances over the Life Cycle in the United States. Population and Development Review.19, (3), 497-522.1993.
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  • Herring, Cedric, Horton, Hayward D., Thomas, Melvin E.. Feminization of Poverty or Pauperization of Women? Clarifying the Sources of Change in the Impoverishment of Women and Their Families. National Journal of Sociology.7, (1), 43-65.1993.
  • Hoppe, Robert. Poverty in Rural America: Trends and Demographic Characteristics. Persistent Poverty in Rural America.Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 1993.
  • Juhn, Chinhui, Murphy, Kevin M., Pierce, Brooks. Wage inequality and the rise in returns to skill. Journal of Political Economy.101, (3), 410-442.1993.
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  • Kaestner, Robert. Recent changes in the labor supply behavior of married couples. Eastern Economic Journal.19, (2), 185-208.1993.
  • Karoly, Lynn A.. The trend in inequality among families, individuals, and workers in the United States: A twenty-five year perspective. Uneven Tides: Rising Inequality in America.New York: Russell Sage. 1993.
  • Mayer, Susan, Jencks, Christopher. Recent trends in economic inequality in the United States: Income versus expenditure versus material wellbeing. Poverty and Prosperity in the U.S.A. the late twentieth century.New York: St. Martin's. 1993.
  • Raffalovich, Lawrence E.. Structural sources of change in earnings inequality: Evidence from the Current Population Survey: 1967-1981. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility.Greenwich: JAI Press. 1993.
  • Thomas, Melvin E.. Race, Class, and Personal Income: An Empirical Test of the Declining Significance of Race Thesis, 1968-1988. Social Problems.40, (3), 328-342.1993.
    • ID: 10.1525/sp.1993.40.3.03x0081c (DOI)
  • Topel, Robert. What have we learned from empirical studies of unemployment and turnover?. American Economic Review.83, (2), 110-115.1993.
  • Borjas, George J., Freeman, Richard B., Katz, Lawrence. On the labor market effects of immigration and trade. Immigration and the Work Force: Economic Consequences for the United States and Source Areas.Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1992.
  • Bosworth, Barry, Burtless, Gary. Effects of Tax Reform on Labor Supply, Investment, and Saving. Journal of Economic Perspectives.6, (1), 3-25.1992.
    • ID: 10.1257/jep.6.1.3 (DOI)
  • Hecker, Daniel E.. Reconciling conflicting data on jobs for college graduates. Monthly Labor Review.115, (7), 3-12.1992.
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  • Juhn, Chinhui. Decline of Male Labor Market Participation: The Role of Declining Market Opportunities. Quarterly Journal of Economics.107, (1), 79-121.1992.
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  • Karoly, Lynn A.. Changes in the Distribution of Individual Earnings in the U.S.: 1967-1986. Review of Economics and Statistics.74, (1), 107-115.1992.
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  • Katz, Lawrence F., Murphy, Kevin M.. Changes in Relative Wages, 1963-1987: Supply and Demand Factors. Quarterly Journal of Economics.107, (1), 35-78.1992.
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  • Levy, Frank, Murnane, Richard J.. U.S. Earnings Levels and Earnings Inequality: A Review of Recent Trends and Proposed Explanations. Journal of Economic Literature.30, (3), 1333-1381.1992.
  • Murphy, Kevin M., Welch, Finis. The Structure of Wages. Quarterly Journal of Economics.107, (1), 285-326.1992.
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  • Tolbert, Charles M., Lyson, Thomas A.. Earnings Inequality in the Nonmetropolitan United States: 1967-1990. Rural Sociology.57, (4), 494-511.1992.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1549-0831.1992.tb00475.x (DOI)
  • Xie, Yu. The Socioeconomic Status of Young Male Veterans, 1964-1984. Social Science Quarterly.73, (2), 379-396.1992.
  • Bishop, John A., Chow, K. Victor, Formby, John P.. A Stochastic Dominance Analysis of Growth, Recessions and the U.S. Income Distribution, 1967-1986. Southern Economic Journal.57, (4), 936 -1991.
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  • Blank, Rebecca M., Card, David E.. Recent Trends in Insured and Uninsured Unemployment: Is There an Explanation?. Quarterly Journal of Economics.106, (4), 1157-1189.1991.
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  • Juhn, Chinhui, Murphy, Kevin M., Topel, Robert H.. Why has the natural rate of unemployment increased over time?. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity.1991, (2), 75-126.1991.
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  • Murphy, Kevin M., Welch, Finis. The role of international trade in wage differentials. Workers and Their Wages: Changing Patterns in the United States.Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute. 1991.
  • Blackburn, McKinley L.. What Can Explain the Increase in Earnings Inequality Among Males?. Industrial Relations.29, (3), 441 -1990.
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  • Blank, Rebecca. Are part-time jobs bad jobs?. A Future of Lousy Jobs?.Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Pres. 1990.
  • Haveman, Robert, Wolfe, Barbara. The Economic Well-Being Of The Disabled. Journal of Human Resources.25, (1), 32 -1990.
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  • Macunovich, Diane J., Easterlin, Richard A.. How Parents Have Coped: The Effect of Life Cycle Demographic Decisions on the Economic Status of Pre-School Age Children, 1964-87. Population and Development Review.16, (2), 301-325.1990.
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  • Maxwell, Nan L.. Changing Female Labor Force Participation: Influences on Income Inequality and Distribution. Social Forces.68, (4), 1251-1266.1990.
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  • Vroman, Wayne. Black Men's Relative Earnings: Are the Gains Illusory?. Industrial and Labor Relations Review.44, (1), 83-98.1990.
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  • Wolfe, Barbara L., Haveman, Robert. Trends in the prevalence of work disability from 1962 to 1984, and their correlates. Milbank Quarterly.68, (1), 53-80.1990.
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  • Berger, Mark C.. Demographic Cycles, Cohort Size, and Earnings. Demography.26, (2), 311 -1989.
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  • Bound, John, Freeman, Richard B.. Black economic progress: Erosion of the post-1965 gains in the 1980s?. The Question of Discrimination: Racial Inequality in the U.S. Labor Market.Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press. 1989.
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  • Murphy, Kevin M., Welch, Finis. Wage premiums for college graduates: Recent growth and possible explanations. Educational Researcher.18, (4), 17-26.1989.
  • Scott, Frank A., Berger, Mark C., Black, Dan A.. Effects of the Tax Treatment of Fringe Benefits on Labor Market Segmentation. Industrial and Labor Relations Review.42, (2), 216-229.1989.
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  • Bassi, Laurie J.. Poverty among women and children: What accounts for the change?. American Economic Review.78, (2), 91-95.1988.
  • Hall, Fred D.. The Urban Underclass in Weberian/Ecological Perspective: Racial and Sexual Dimensions. American Sociological Association. 1988.
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  • Schwartz, Saul. The Relative Earnings of Veterans of Vietman and Korean-Era Veterans. Industrial and Labor Relations Review.39, (4), 564-572.1986.
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  • Perry, Timothy T.. Black and White Male Labor Force Entrants, 1964-69: An Analysis of Vintage and Life-Cycle Effects Within Occupations. Dissertation, University of Mississippi. 1983.
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Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census (1984): Current Population Survey: Annual Demographic File, 1968. Version 1. Current Population Survey Series. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.