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Representation and Development in Brazil, 1972-1973

Resource Type
Dataset : observational data, survey data
  • Converse, Philip E.
  • McDonough, Peter J.
  • de Souza, Amaury G.
  • Cohen, Youssef
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • Ford Foundation
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Office of Public Health and Science
Free Keywords
agricultural policy; authoritarianism; birth control; censorship; demographic characteristics; domestic policy; economic policy; government performance; labor unions; military civilian relations; military regimes; national politics; political affiliation; political attitudes; political awareness; political behavior; political expectations; political influence; political issues; political opposition; political participation; political perceptions; population policy; public opinion; repression; socioeconomic status; trust in government; union leadership; union membership; voting behavior; working class
  • Abstract

    Conducted in 1973-1974 in Brazil, this survey was designed to measure two sets of respondents' preferences regarding salient policy issues, their evaluations of political life and government performance, and their conceptions of relationships between themselves and their representatives in labor unions and in the political arena at large. Interview schedules for each group of respondents are nearly identical, but the sampling frames are very different. Therefore, the data from the separate samples are supplied as Part 1 (Mass Sample) and Part 2 (Union Sample) in two separate files. Variables include respondents' preferences as to which course of action the government should take in each of a series of policy domains, ranging from birth control and income redistribution to the limits on political opposition and governmental controls over organized labor. There are variables indicating respondents' opinions elicited on several current issues of controversy, including the political role of the military, censorship, and the system of indirect elections. The survey also contains data on the respondents' degree of organizational involvement of unionized workers, including variables pertaining to their participation in sindicatos (unions), their evaluation of the performance of the sindicato leadership, and indications of how the represented might hold the leadership to account for their actions. Additional variables deal with membership evaluation of sindicato functions and influence, respondents' party identification, past electoral choices, and evaluations of post-1964 government policies. Other variables include respondents' interest in politics and in the operation of government, as well as their perceptions of the effect of government on their lives. Variables provided by the interviewers include perceptions of the respondents' interest in the interview, the sincerity with which questions were answered, and the presence and behavior of other persons at the interview. A full range of background information is also contained in the data collection, including variables on respondents' age, sex, race, religion, educational level, occupation, income, marital status, birthplace, father's education and occupation, migration, and media use.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Standardized missing values.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Mass Sample
    • DS2: Union Sample
Temporal Coverage
  • 1972 / 1973
    Time period: 1972--1973
  • 1972 / 1973
    Collection date: 1972--1973
Geographic Coverage
  • Brazil
  • Global
  • Latin America
  • Rio de Janeiro
  • Sao Paulo
  • South America
Sampled Universe
Part 1: Persons 18 years of age and older residing in Southeast Brazil. Part 2: Members of 12 labor sindicatos (union locals) residing in the metropolitan regions of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
Part 1: A multistage probability sample, including: (Stage 1) the intentional selection of six states to represent the Southeastern region, each of which received representation in proportion to population, (Stage 2) selection of municipios, a county-like administrative unit of local government, selected with probabilities proportional to size after being stratified by degree of urbanization, with capital cities included with certainty, and (Stage 3) selection of census sectors which were divided into segments containing a manageable number of dwellings. Households were selected systematically from segment listings, and one respondent was chosen with known probability within each household included in the sample. Part 2: A systematic random sample of unionized workers.
Collection Mode
  • The interview schedules are nearly identical for the two samples surveyed, but the samples were independently selected and must be analyzed separately. They cannot be merged and analyzed as a single population.

    The dataset includes 53 questions that appeared as open-ended probes in the original survey and whose codes are in Portuguese.

    An additional sample of 269 national elites was also interviewed during 1972-1973. However, concern with confidentiality prevented the release of the elite materials through ICPSR.

    Multiple variants exist in the literature for the spelling of the name Amaury G. de Souza, one of the Principal Investigators of this study. ICPSR uses the preferred form found in library authority lists when citing his name in related publications.

2006-01-18 File QU7712.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads. Funding insitution(s): Ford Foundation. United States Department of Health and Human Services. Office of Public Health and Science (PHS: R01 HD 09126-03).
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 7712 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR07712.v1
  • Mettenheim, Kurt von. The Brazilian voter in democratic transition, 1974-1982. Comparative Politics.23, (1), 23-44.1990.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Geddes, Barbara, Zaller, John. Sources of Popular Support for Authoritarian Regimes. American Journal of Political Science.33, (2), 319-347.1989.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Rochon, Thomas R., Mitchell, Michael J.. Social bases of the transition to democracy in Brazil. Comparative Politics.21, (3), 307-322.1989.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Cohen, Youssef. 'The Benevolent Leviathan': Political consciousness among urban workers under state corporatism. American Political Science Review.76, (1), 46-59.1982.
    • ID: (URL)
  • McDonough, Peter, DeSousa, Amaury. The Politics of Population in Brazil: Elite Ambivalence and Public Demand. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1981.
  • Cohen, Youssef. Popular Support for Authoritarian Governments: Brazil Under Medici. Dissertation, University of Michigan. 1979.
  • Sousa, Amaury de. The Nature of Corporatist Representation: Leaders and Members of Organized Labor in Brazil. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1979.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Converse, Philip E.; McDonough, Peter J.; de Souza, Amaury G.; Cohen, Youssef (1984): Representation and Development in Brazil, 1972-1973. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.