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United States Census Data, 1900: Public Use Sample

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • Preston, Samuel H.
  • Higgs, Robert L.
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Free Keywords
census data; demographic characteristics; historical data; household composition
  • Abstract

    This study was conducted under the auspices of the Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology at the University of Washington. It is a nationally representative sample of the population of the United States in 1900, drawn from the manuscript returns of individuals enumerated in the 1900 United States Census. Household variables include region, state and county of household, size of household, and type and ownership of dwelling. Individual variables for each household member include relationship to head of household, race, sex, age, marital status, number of children, and birthplace. Immigration variables include parents' birthplace, year of immigration and number of years in the United States. Occupation variables include occupation, coded by both the 1900 and 1950 systems, and number of months unemployed. Education variables include number of months in school, whether respondents could read or write a language, and whether they spoke English.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1900
  • Collection date: 1900-06
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
All persons residing in the United States on June 1, 1900.
National probability sample, yielding 27,069 households comprising 100,438 individuals who represent 1/760th of the total population of the United States in 1900.
Collection Mode
  • The file contains a household record for each household selected in the sample, with variables describing the location and composition of the household. The household record is followed by a record for each individual who resided in that household. These "person records" contain variables describing the demographic characteristics, nativity, education, and occupation of each person. Sample interview schedules are included in a hard copy supplement available upon request.

This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 7825 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR07825.v1
  • Elman, Cheryl. Labor markets and opportunity structures: Modeling the contexts of retirement in the historical United States. Research on Aging.21, (2), 205-239.1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/0164027599212004 (DOI)
  • Haines, Michael R., Preston, Samuel H.. The Use of the Census to Estimate Childhood Mortality. Historical Methods.30, (2), 77-96.1997.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615449709601177 (DOI)
  • Costa, Dora L.. Pensions and Retirement: Evidence form Union Army Veterans. Quarterly Journal of Economics.110, (2), 297-319.1995.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Magnuson, Diana L.. Who and What Determined the Content of the U.S. Population Schedule Over Time. Historical Methods.28, (1), 11-26.1995.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615440.1995.9955309 (DOI)
  • Magnuson, Diana L., King, Miriam L.. Comparability of the Public Use Microdata Samples: Enumeration Procedures. Historical Methods.28, (1), 27-32.1995.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615440.1995.9955310 (DOI)
  • Ruggles, Steven. Family Interrelationships. Historical Methods.28, (1), 52-58.1995.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615440.1995.9955314 (DOI)
  • Ruggles, Steven. Sample Designs and Sampling Errors. Historical Methods.28, (1), 40-46.1995.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615440.1995.9955312 (DOI)
  • Ruggles, Steven, Hacker, J. David, Sobek, Matthew. General Design of the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Historical Methods.28, (1), 33-39.1995.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615440.1995.9955311 (DOI)
  • Ruggles, Steven, Menard, Russell R.. The Minnesota Historical Census Project. Historical Methods.28, (1), 6-10.1995.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615440.1995.9955308 (DOI)
  • Sobek, Matthew. The Comparability of Occupations and the Generation of Income Scores. Historical Methods.28, (1), 47-51.1995.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615440.1995.9955313 (DOI)
  • Miller, Ann R.. Estimating Interregional Migration in the United Staes form Sample Data: A Procedural Note. Historical Methods.27, (1), 5-23.1994.
  • Moen, Jon R.. Rural Nonfarm Households: Leaving the Farm and the Retirement of Older Men, 1860-1980. Social Science History.18, (1), 55-76.1994.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Moen, Jon R.. The Unemployment and Retirement of Older Men. Historical Methods.27, (1), 40-46.1994.
  • Ruggles, Steven. The origins of African-American family structure. American Sociological Review.59, (1), 136-151.1994.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Card, David, Krueger, Alan B.. Trends in relative black-white earnings revisited. American Economic Review.83, (2), 85-91.1993.
  • Costa, Dora L.. Height, Wealth, and Disease Among the Native-Born in the Rural, Antebellum North. Social Science History.17, (3), 355-384.1993.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Margo, Robert A., Finegan, T. Aldrich. The Decline in Black Teenage Labor-Force Participation in the South, 1900- 1970: The Role of Schooling. American Economic Review.83, (1), 234-247.1993.
  • McCaa, Robert. Ethnic intermarriage and gender in New York City. Journal of Interdisciplinary History.24, (2), 207-231.1993.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Shoemaker, Nancy. The Census as Civilizer: American Indian Household Structure in the 1900 and 1910 U.S. Census. Historical Methods.25, (1), 4-11.1992.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615440.1992.9956337 (DOI)
  • Gross, Stephen. Domestic Labor as a Life-Course Event: The Effects of Ethnicity in Turn-of-the-Century America. Social Science History.15, (3), 397-416.1991.
    • ID: (URL)
  • King, Miriam, Ruggles, Steven. American immigration, fertility, and race suicide at the turn of the century. Journal of Interdisciplinary History.20, (3), 347-369.1990.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Jacobs, Jerry A.. Long-term trends in occupational segregation by sex. American Journal of Sociology.95, (1), 160-173.1989.
    • ID: 10.1086/229217 (DOI)
  • Landale, Nancy S.. Agricultural opportunity and marriage: The United States at the turn of the century. Demography.26, (2), 203-218.1989.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Smith, Daniel Scott. 'All in some degree related to each other': A demographic and comparative resolution of the anomaly of New England kinship. American Historical Review.94, (1), 44-79.1989.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Fischer, Claude S., Carroll, Glenn R.. Telephone and Automobile Diffusion in the United States, 1902-1937. American Journal of Sociology.93, (5), 1153-1178.1988.
    • ID: 10.1086/228867 (DOI)
  • Keil, Thomas J., Usui, Wayne M.. The Family Wage System in Pennsylvania's Anthracite Region: 1850-1900. Social Forces.67, (1), 185-207.1988.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Moen, Jon R.. From Gainful Employment to Labor Force: Definitions and a New Estimate of Work Rates of American Males, 1860 to 1980. Historical Methods.21, (4), 149-159.1988.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615440.1988.9955290 (DOI)
  • Heaton, Tim B., Hoppe, Caroline. Widowed and Married: Comparative Change in Living Arrangements, 1900 and 1980. Social Science History.11, (3), 261-280.1987.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Margo, Robert A.. Accounting for Racial Differences in School Attendance in the American South, 1900: The Role of Separate-but-Equal. Review of Economics and Statistics.69, (4), 661-666.1987.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Sanderson, Warren C.. Below-replacement fertility in nineteenth century America. Population and Development Review.13, (2), 305-313.1987.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Ransom, Roger L., Sutch, Richard. The Labor of Older Americans: Retirement of Men On and Off the Job, 1870-1937. Journal of Economic History.46, (1), 1-30.1986.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0022050700045472 (DOI)
  • Atkinson, Maxine P., Glass, Becky L.. Marital Age Heterogamy and Homogamy, 1900 to 1980. Journal of Marriage and Family.47, (3), 685-691.1985.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Guest, Avery M., Tolnay, Stewart E.. Agricultural Organization and Educational Consumption in the U.S. in 1900. Sociology of Education.58, (4), 201-212.1985.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Sweetser, Dorrian Apple. Love and Work: Intergenerational Household Composition in the U.S. in 1900. Journal of Marriage and Family.46, (2), 289-293.1984.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Tolnay, Stewart E., Guest, Avery M.. American family building strategies in 1900: Stopping or spacing. Demography.21, (1), 9-18.1984.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Guest, Avery M., Tolnay, Stewart E.. Children's Roles and Fertility: Late-Nineteenth Century United States. Social Science History.7, (4), 355-380.1983.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Beckett, Joyce O.. Working Women: A Historical Review of Racial Differences. Black Sociologist.9, (1), 5-27.1982.
  • Tolnay, Stewart E., Graham, Stephen N., Guest, Avery M.. Own-Child Estimates of U. S. White Fertility, 1886-1899. Historical Methods.15, (3), 127-138.1982.
  • Lindert, Peter. Fertility and Scarcity in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 1978.
  • Kousser, J. Morgan. The Shaping of Southern Politics: Suffrage Restriction and the Establishment of the One Party South, 1880-1910. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 1974.
  • Allswang, John M.. A House for all Peoples: Ethnic Politics in Chicago 1890-1936. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. 1971.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Preston, Samuel H.; Higgs, Robert L. (1984): United States Census Data, 1900: Public Use Sample. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.